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Laura Ritter K-12 Science Coordinator Troy School District lritter2@troy.k12.mi.us lritter77@gmail.com Engaging Students in Scientific Practices with Modeling Instruction

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What does good instructional practice look like? How do we know that our students are not just engaged, but also really learning?

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The story of Malcolm Wells… Malcolm’s students were engaged, but not learning. Students would not always abandon their misconceptions. Malcolm also asked….How do I know that my students are really learning?

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Malcolm’s mission… Malcolm Wells joined David Hestenes and Ibrahim Hallhoun to research student preconceptions and impact on student learning Newton’s 3 rd Law For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

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The Force Concept Inventory (FCI)

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Force Concept Inventory (FCI) 30 questions, multiple choice FCI pretest average is about 26% (random guessing score: 20%) 60% considered threshold for understanding Newtonian mechanics (Jackson, Dukerich, Hestenes 2008)

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Current Research-Based Practice The work of Wells, Hestenes & Hallhoun is still valued today along with other well-respected researchers of their time The Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards are challenging us to really consider: How are our students learning? How do we create thinking-centered classrooms? How do we promote deep understanding?

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Common Core ELA Evidence-based claims Reasoning Engaging in argument Next Generation Science Standards Common Core Math Making sense of problems & asking questions Developing & using models Obtaining information from text Cross-Curricular Practices

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In science, we are challenged to shift our thinking… From thinking that one scientific method fits all To thinking about how to engage our students in the practices of scientists 1.Asking questions and defining problems 2.Developing and using models 3.Planning and carrying out investigations 4.Analyzing and interpreting data 5.Using mathematics and computational thinking 6.Constructing explanations and designing solutions 7.Engaging in argument from evidence 8.Obtaining, evaluating and communicating information

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In science, we are challenged to shift our thinking… From thinking that “hands- on” science is ESSENTIAL To thinking that engaging students EVERY DAY in scientific practices and thinking is POWERFUL

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Modeling Instruction is ahead of the curve! Modeling provides a constructivist framework for instruction Modeling instructor’s mindset is “How will my students learn about…?” rather than “How am I going to teach…?” NSF funded program from 1989-2005 US Department of Education designated as “exemplary” program in 2001 Physics, chemistry and physical science are well-developed and supported by decades of research

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What is Modeling Instruction? How is it different from “regular” classroom instruction? Is it inquiry teaching?

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The Modeling Cycle Model Development Model Deployment (Model Revision or Failure) Loosely based on the 5-E learning cycle:

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The Modeling Cycle: Stage 1 Model Development Teacher elicits students’ preconceptions Questions about a phenomenon are raised Students investigate Students have a role in experimental design Students must be allowed to fail, receive feedback and revise The Standards Connection… CCSS Mathematics: Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. Use appropriate tools strategically. Attend to precision. NGSS: Asking questions and defining problems Developing and using models Planning and carrying out investigations

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The Modeling Cycle: Stage 1 Model Development Students analyze results First, in small groups while teacher asks Socratic questions The class convenes as a group and compares results looking for patterns Teacher often assists in the generalization of model The Standards Connection… CCSS Mathematics: Model with mathematics. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. Look for and make use of structure. NGSS: Developing and using models Analyzing and interpreting data Using mathematics and computational thinking Constructing explanations and designing solutions Engaging in argument from evidence

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Model Development: Eliciting Students Preconceptions & Designing the Investigation

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Model Development: Investigating & Preparing for Discussion

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The Whiteboard… Student constructed Students take ownership Tool for communication Discussions promote a culture of a positive learning community

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Model Development: Whiteboard Discussions

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The Modeling Cycle: Stage 2 Model Deployment Students practice what they have learned Continue to develop a deep understanding through problem solving Discuss with whiteboards Students apply what they have learned in lab practicum, tests/quizzes. The Standards Connection… CCSS Mathematics: Make sense of problems and persevere in soling them. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. Use appropriate tools strategically. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. NGSS: Developing and using models Using mathematics and computational thinking Constructing explanations and designing solutions Engaging in argument from evidence

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Model Deployment: Whiteboard Discussions

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Model Deployment: Lab Practicum Given certain parameters, students must make measurements and calculations to make a cart rolling down a ramp collide with a battery-powered car moving at a constant speed.

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Force Concept Inventory (FCI) 30 questions, multiple choice FCI pretest average is about 26% (random guessing score: 20%) 60% considered threshold for understanding Newtonian mechanics (Jackson, Dukerich, Hestenes 2008)

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What do students say about their experience in high school science?

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Why is teacher training ESSENTIAL? Teachers must have a depth of understanding of content and pedagogy Authentic to instructional approach During a 3-week summer course, teachers have the opportunity to: learn about and discuss the pedagogy learn about the modeling curriculum framework engage in hands-on activities, labs, etc. practice instructional strategies such as Socratic dialogue

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The History of Modeling Instruction in Michigan… 3-week physics workshops in 2000, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 in metro-Detroit Follow-up sessions for physics cohorts throughout the school year 1-week chemistry workshop in 2013 in metro-Detroit MSP Grant for 2014 & 2015. 3-week workshops in different regions of MI.

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For more information… Michigan: Laura Ritter 734-649-7039 cell lritter77@gmail.com Mike Gallagher (Oakland Schools) mike.gallagher@oakland.k12.mi.us Nationwide: www.modelinginstruction.orgwww.modelinginstruction.org http://modeling.asu.edu

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