Presentation on theme: "“Reactive Power Management and Voltage Stability” Sharma Kolluri, IEEE Fellow Manager of Transmission Planning Entergy Services Inc Presentation at 2012."— Presentation transcript:
“Reactive Power Management and Voltage Stability” Sharma Kolluri, IEEE Fellow Manager of Transmission Planning Entergy Services Inc Presentation at 2012 Southeast Symposium on Contemporary Engineering Topics (SSCET) October 26, 2012 New Orleans, Louisiana
Outline Background/Introduction VAR Basics Voltage Stability FIDVR Technology Summary.
List of recent blackouts 1.NE blackout - August 14, 2003 2.Greece – July 12, 2004 3.Florida – February 26, 2008 4.Southeast Power Outage/San Diego – September 8, 2011 5.India – July 31, 2012.
Recommendation#23 Strengthen Reactive Power and Control Practices in all NERC Regions “Reactive power problem was a significant factor in the August 14 outage, and they were also important elements in the several of the earlier outages” -Quote form the outage report
Laws of Reactive Physics Complex Power called Volt Amperes (“VA”) is comprised of resistive current I R and reactive current I Q times the voltage. –“VA” = VI T * = V (I R – jI Q ) = P + jQ Power Factor (“PF”) = Cosine of angle between P and “VA” –P = “VA” times “PF” System Losses –P loss = I T 2 R (Watts) –Q loss = I T 2 X (VARs) VA P Q North American Electric Reliability Corporation
Reactive Physics – VAR loss Every component with reactance, X: VAR loss = I T 2 X Z is comprised of resistance R and reactance X –On 138kV lines, X = 2 to 5 times larger than R. –One 230kV lines, X = 5 to 10 times larger than R. –On 500kV lines, X = 25 times larger than R. –R decreases when conductor diameter increases. X increases as the required geometry of phase to phase spacing increases. VAR loss –Increases in proportion to the square of the total current. –Is approximately 2 to 25 times larger than Watt loss. North American Electric Reliability Corporation
Transmission Line Real and Reactive Power Losses vs. Line Loading Source: B. Kirby and E. Hirst 1997, Ancillary-Service Details: Voltage Control, ORNL/CON-453, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn., December 1997.
Static and Dynamic VAR Support Static Reactive Power Devices –Cannot quickly change the reactive power level as long as the voltage level remains constant. –Reactive power production level drops when the voltage level drops. –Examples include capacitors and inductors. Dynamic Reactive Power Devices –Can quickly change the MVAR level independent of the voltage level. –Reactive power production level increases when the voltage level drops. –Examples include static VAR compensators (SVC), synchronous condensers, and generators.
Reactive Power Management Effectively balancing capacitive and inductive components of a power system to provide sufficient voltage support. Essential for reliable power system operation. –Prevention of voltage collapse Benefits Improves efficiency of power delivery. Improves utilization of transmission assets. Reduces congestion and increases power transfer capability. Enhances grid security.
Reactive Power for Voltage Support Reactive Loads VARs flow from High voltage to Low voltage; import of VARs indicate reactive power deficit
What is Voltage Instability/Collapse? A power system undergoes voltage collapse if post-disturbance voltages are below “acceptable limits” voltage collapse may be due to voltage or angular instability Main factor causing voltage instability is the inability of the power systems to “maintain a proper balance of reactive power and voltage control”
Voltage Instability/Collapse The driving force for voltage instability is usually the load. The possible outcome of voltage instability: –loss of loads –loss of integrity of the power system Voltage stability timeframe: –transient voltage instability: 0 to 10 secs –long-term voltage stability: 1 – 10 mins
Key Concerns Minimize motor tripping Limit UVLS activation Voltage (pu)
Voltages at Goslin 138kV Station Time (seconds) Voltage (volts)
Common Solutions for Voltage Instability Install/Operate Shunt Capacitor/Reactor Banks Add dynamic Shunt Compensation in the form of SVC/STATCOM/DVAR to mitigate transient voltage dips Add Series Compensation on transmission lines in the problem area Construct transmission facilities Coordinate Voltage Schedules/Reactive Power Flows Implement UVLS Scheme
What is it? –After a fault has cleared, the voltage stays at low levels (below 80%) for several seconds Results in dropping load / generation or fast voltage collapse 4 key factors drive FIDVR: Fault Duration Fault Location High load level with high induction motor load penetration Unfavorable Generation Pattern
A “Near” Fast Voltage Collapse in Phoenix in 1995 North American Electric Reliability Council, System Disturbances, Review of Selected 1995 Electric System Disturbances in North America, March 1996.
Technology for Addressing Reactive Power/Voltage Stability Problems Technology for Addressing Reactive Power/Voltage Stability Problems
Porter Static Var Compensator (SVC) Maintains system voltage by continuously varying VAR output to meet system demands. Controls capacitor banks on the transmission system to match reactive power output to the load requirements.
Series Capacitor – Dayton Bulk 230kV Station The Capacitor offsets reactance in the line, making it appear to the system to be half of its actual length. Power flows are redirected over this larger line, unloading parallel lines and increasing transfer capability.
Static compensator (STATCOM) Voltage source converter device Alternating voltage source behind a coupling reactance Can be operated at its full output current even at very low voltages Depending upon manufacturer's design, STATCOMs may have increased transient rating both in inductive as well as capacitive mode of operation Transformer DC-AC switching converter I X System bus CsCs V dc V E Schematic diagram of STATCOM
Summary The increasing need to operate the transmission system at its maximum safe transfer limit has become a primary concern at most utilities Reactive power supply or VAR management is an important ingredient in maintaining healthy power system voltages and facilitating power transfers Inadequate reactive power supply was a major factor in most of the recent blackouts