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The Cell Cycle and Mitosis

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Presentation on theme: "The Cell Cycle and Mitosis"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cell Cycle and Mitosis
Cell Division in Prokaryotes Prokaryotes hav one circular chromosome Binary Fission- the division of a prokaryotic cell into two offspring cells DNA is copied, forming two identical chromosomes Cell grows until it reaches approximately twice the cell’s original size

2 Cell division in Eukaryotes
Cell Cycle –repeating set of events in life of cell Interphase- time between cell divisions G1 phase- cells grow to mature size S phase- cell’s DNA is copied (synthesized) G2 phase- Time during which cell prepare fro cell division Cell Division: Mitosis- the nucleus of cell divides Cytokinesis- division of cell’s cytoplasm

3 Cell division in Eukaryotes https://wps. prenhall

4 Stages of Mitosis Prophase DNA condenses into chromosomes
Centrosomes move to opposite poles Mitotic spindle starts to form

5 Metaphase Anaphase Chromosomes move to center of dividing cell
Chromatids of each chromosome separate and move toward opposite poles

6 Telophase Spindle fibers disassemble
Chromosomes return to a less tightly coiled chromatin state Nuclear envelope forms around each set of chromosomes Nucleolus forms in each of the newly forming cells

7 Cytokinesis- division of cytoplasm
In Animal Cells Cytokinesis begins with a pinching inward of the cell; cleavage furrow Cleavage furrow pinches the one cell into two cells In Plant Cells Vesicles from Golgi apparatus join together at midline of dividing cell to form Cell Plate

8 Control of Cell Division
Control occurs at 3 main checkpoints Cell growth (G1) checkpoint- if cell is healthy and has grown to suitable size during G1 phase, proteins initiate DNA synthesis (S phase) DNA synthesis (G2) checkpoint- DNA repair enzymes check the results of DNA replication. IF ok, then cell proceeds with mitosis Mitosis checkpoint- if cell passes this checkpoint, proteins signal the cell to exit mitosis. Cancer, the uncontrolled growth of cells is caused by mutations in the checkpoint proteins


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