Presentation on theme: "Table of Contents Chapter Preview 6.1 Observing Chemical Change"— Presentation transcript:
1 Table of Contents Chapter Preview 6.1 Observing Chemical Change 6.2 Describing Chemical Reactions6.3 Controlling Chemical Reactions6.4 Fire and Fire Safety
2 Chapter Preview Questions 1. Which of the following is an example of a physical change?a. Wood burns and becomes ash.b. A silver fork tarnishes.c. Water boils and becomes water vapor.d. Leaves decay over time.
3 Chapter Preview Questions 1. Which of the following is an example of a physical change?a. Wood burns and becomes ash.b. A silver fork tarnishes.c. Water boils and becomes water vapor.d. Leaves decay over time.
4 Chapter Preview Questions 2. When a forest burns, ita. neither absorbs nor releases energy.b. loses matter and energy.c. absorbs energy.d. releases energy.
5 Chapter Preview Questions 2. When a forest burns, ita. neither absorbs nor releases energy.b. loses matter and energy.c. absorbs energy.d. releases energy.
6 Chapter Preview Questions 3. Fe, which stands for iron, is aa. chemical symbol.b. chemical equation.c. atomic number.d. name.
7 Chapter Preview Questions 3. Fe, which stands for iron, is aa. chemical symbol.b. chemical equation.c. atomic number.d. name.
8 Chapter Preview Questions 4. The ease and speed with which an element combines with other elements is called itsa. atomic number.b. chemical property.c. physical property.d. reactivity.
9 Chapter Preview Questions 4. The ease and speed with which an element combines with other elements is called itsa. atomic number.b. chemical property.c. physical property.d. reactivity.
10 What happens during a chemical reaction? Suppose you fill a sealable bagwith ice cubes, and you allow theice to melt. How would the massof the bag and ice beforemelting compare to the mass ofthe water and the bag aftermelting? Explain your answer.
11 Identify Multiple Meanings WordEveryday MeaningScientific Meaningconcentrationn. Close attention for a longperiod of timeExample: Studying with the TV on affects her concentration.n. The amount of a substance in a givenvolumeExample: Most soft drinks contain a highconcentration of sugar.
12 Identify Multiple Meanings WordEveryday MeaningScientific Meaningmattern. The subject of discussion, concern, or actionExample: The subject matter of the movie was space travel.n. Anything that has mass and takes up spaceExample: Solids, liquids, and gases are states of matter.
13 Identify Multiple Meanings WordEveryday MeaningScientific Meaningproductn. Anything that is made orcreatedExample: Milk and cheeses are dairy products.n. A substance formed as a result of a chemical reactionExample: In a chemical reaction, substancescan combine to form one or more products.
14 Apply It!Complete the sentences below with the correct word from the listabove. Then identify the terms that have scientific meanings.1. The coach told the team to keep its during the game.concentration2. Seawater has a high of salt.concentration (scientific meaning)
16 Section 1: Observing Chemical Change How can changes in matter be described?How can you tell when a chemical reaction occurs?
17 Properties and Changes in Matter Matter can undergo both physical change and chemical change.
18 Properties and Changes in Matter Chemical changes occur when bonds break and new bonds form.
19 Energy in Chemical Changes A student places two substances in a flask and measures the temperature once per minute while the substances react. The student plots the time and temperature data and creates the graph at left.
20 Energy in Chemical Changes Reading Graphs:What was the temperature in the flask at 3 minutes? When was the first time the temperature was at 6ºC?At 3 minutes the temperature in the flask was about 30ºC. The first time the temperature was 6ºC was at about 7 minutes.
21 Energy in Chemical Changes Calculating:How many degrees did the temperature drop between 2 minutes and 5 minutes?About 20ºC
22 Energy in Chemical Changes Interpreting Data:Is the reaction endothermic or exothermic? Explain.The reaction was endothermic, because it absorbed thermal energy from the reaction mixture, causing the temperature to drop.
23 Energy in Chemical Changes Inferring:At what temperature did the reaction stop? How can you tell?The reaction stopped at about 2ºC. You can tell because that is the lowest temperature reached.
24 Energy in Chemical Changes Drawing Conclusions:Suppose the temperature in the flask increased instead of decreased as the reaction occurred. In terms of energy, what kind of reaction would it be? Explain.If the temperature increased instead, the reaction would be exothermic, because an exothermic reaction is one in which energy is released.
25 Links on Chemical Changes Click the SciLinks button for links on chemical changes.
27 Section 2: Describing Chemical Reactions What information does a chemical equation contain?How is matter conserved during a chemical reaction?What must a balanced chemical equation show?What are three types of chemical reactions?
28 Describing Chemical Reactions Cellular phone messages use symbols and abbreviations to express ideas in shorter form. Similarly, chemists often use chemical equations in place of words.
29 Chemical FormulasThe formula of a compound identifies the elements in the compound and the ratios in which their atoms are present.
30 What Are Chemical Equations? Chemical equations use chemical formulas and other symbols instead of words to summarize a reaction.
31 Conservation of Matter The principle of conservation of matter states that in a chemical reaction, the total mass of the reactants must equal the total mass of the products.
32 Balancing Chemical Equations To describe a reaction accurately, a chemical equation must show the same number of each type of atom on both sides of the equation.
33 Balancing Equations Activity Click the Active Art button to open a browser window and access Active Art about balancing equations.
34 Balancing Chemical Equations Magnesium (Mg) reacts with oxygen gas (O2), forming magnesium oxide (MgO). To write a balanced equation for this reaction, first write the equation using the formulas of the reactants and products, then count the number of atoms of each element.
35 Balancing Chemical Equations Balance the equation for the reaction of sodium metal (Na) with oxygen gas (O2), forming sodium oxide (Na2O).
36 Balancing Chemical Equations Balance the equation for the reaction of tin (Sn) with chlorine gas (Cl2), forming tin chloride (SnCl2).
37 Classifying Chemical Reactions Many chemical reactions can be classified in one of three categories: synthesis, decomposition, or replacement.