Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1 Immigrant Economic and Social Integration in Canada: Research, Measurement, Data Development By Garnett Picot Director General Analysis Branch Statistics.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "1 Immigrant Economic and Social Integration in Canada: Research, Measurement, Data Development By Garnett Picot Director General Analysis Branch Statistics."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Immigrant Economic and Social Integration in Canada: Research, Measurement, Data Development By Garnett Picot Director General Analysis Branch Statistics Canada

2 2 Introduction l Integration a major policy issue »20% foreign born, 47% in Toronto »Visible minority neighbourhood in three largest cities: six in 1981: 254 in 2001 »Immigration at high levels, likely to remain so or increase l Deterioration in economic outcomes of immigrants l Statistics Canada responded to need for policy-relevant analysis »Research on social and economic outcomes »Development of new data sets »Adding new variables to existing data sets l 64 research articles in past six years

3 3 Deteriorating earnings outcomes Earnings* of immigrants compared with those of comparable Canadian- born - Log earnings ratio** - Full-time, full-year workers aged from 16 to 64, males Source: Census of Population * Predicted values based on a model ** The ln (immigrant earnings/Canadian-born earnings)

4 4 Why the decline in entry earnings among immigrants l Research in Canada has focuses on entry earnings decline l Changing source regions l Deteriorating labour market outcomes for new labour market entrants in general l “Credentialism” issue: important, but perhaps not explanation for the decline? l Declining returns to foreign work experience l Since 2000, poorer labour market for IT professionals and engineers, in which immigrants are highly concentrated

5 5 Changes in selection system had significant effect on characteristics of entering immigrants % with % in skilled % of skilled principle Enteringuniversityeconomic applicants in IT/ cohort degree class engineering occupations 199117.733.0 5.2 200044.052.142.9 200545.849.730.6 l Resulted in improvement in economic outcomes at top of immigrant earnings distribution: did little to improve low-income rate, chronic poverty l Deterioration post 2000 concentrated among highly educated in skilled economic class (IT/engineer): difficulty integrating these workers

6 6 l Economic outcomes remain quite positive l Educational attainment equal or better than among Canadian- born youth l Rates of employment/unemployment and reliance on government transfers similar to Canadian-born l Earnings equal to or higher than Canadian-born Outcomes for second generation Canadians: The children of immigrants

7 7 Entering immigrants perspective on life in Canada l Longitudinal survey of immigrants »2000 entering immigrant cohort »Tracked for four years, 12,000 respondents l Some dissatisfaction with economic experiences… lack of employment opportunities one of aspects disliked the most »But 84% to 92% indicated quality of life better l Freedom, rights, safety security and prospects for future liked the best l Material well-being better than before? Economic class: ⅓ better, ⅓ same, ⅓ worse; family class: 58% better l Three quarters would come to Canada if had to make decision again l 70% of immigrants initiated citizenship process after four years, additional 22% intend to l About two-thirds of Canadian report positive outlook towards immigration

8 8 Data sources and data development l Census of population remains most important source for immigration research Advantages –Sample size… entering cohorts, detail on variation in outcomes by source country, education, city, ethnic group, occupation, etc. –Analysis of neighbourhood effects possible Disadvantages –No “language ability” measure although language variables –No data on immigrant entry class: economic, family class, refugee

9 9 Other data sources used in immigrant analysis l Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics l Adult Literary Survey l National Population Health Survey l National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth l Data development to enhance ability to conduct analysis »Joint with policy department partners »Immigrant Data Base –Longitudinal taxation records –To assess earnings trajectories of entering immigrants in different entry classes –No comparison groups

10 10 »Longitudinal Administrative Data Base –20% sample of tax filers –Population coverage in high 90s among working age population –Taxation data, formed families –For entering cohorts 1980 to 2004, focus on  Chronic low-income  Earnings gap at entry and trajectory  Use of welfare programs  Out migration of entering immigrants

11 11 »Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants –2000 entering cohort, track for four years –True panel survey –No comparison group –Information on housing, education, foreign credential recognition, employment, health, values, social networks, perceptions of settlement in Canada –12,000 sample »Ethnic Diversity Survey –Uses 2001 Census as sample frame –57,000 sample size, cross-sectional –Information on ethnic origin, religion, language, family background, social network, civic participation, attributes, trust, etc. »Added immigrant identifies to labour force survey in 2007

12 12 l Important topic in many countries l No research at Statistics Canada, but can speculate as to why not a major issue to date Possible reasons l Canada has never pursued or developed a single national identify. At inception in 1867, two founding peoples (French and English). l Canada is a nation of immigrants, and seen to be so by population. Canadians take pride in ability to welcome newcomers. l Immigrants very highly educated, generally ambitious, seek best for their children. Effect of immigration on social cohesion in Canada

13 13 l All political parties agree immigration essential to future economic youth, generally accepted by population. l Political and civic engagement of visible minorities significant l Immigration is racially very diverse; no single groups on which discontent can focus l No illegal immigrant problem on which to focus

14 14 l Statistics Canada’s response to concerns re: immigration integration guided by priorities in place: »Substantive research and analysis is important »Co-operation with policy departments a priority »Links with academic community important »Statistics Canada has comparative advantage re: analysis in some areas Conclusion

Download ppt "1 Immigrant Economic and Social Integration in Canada: Research, Measurement, Data Development By Garnett Picot Director General Analysis Branch Statistics."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google