2 Why have Women faced Discrimination? Historically, women have been considered intellectually inferior to men.They were seen as major sources of temptation and evil.Women were also considered naturally weaker than men.Needed protection to perpetuate families.-Eisenberg, Bonnie, and Mary Ruthsdotter. "Living the Legacy: the Women's Rights Movement " Women's Rights Movement June 2007 <
3 The first signatures on the Declaration of Sentiments. Seneca Falls Convention Held, 1848“. . . The history of mankind is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations on the part of man toward woman, having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over her He has never permitted her to exercise her inalienable right to the elective franchise. He has compelled her to submit to laws, in the formation of which she has no voice. . .”Elizabeth Cady Stanton,Click for The Declaration of Sentiments Full textThe first signatures on the Declaration of Sentiments.
4 19th Amendment“The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.”It was ratified on August 18th, 1920.Mount, Steve. "U.S Constitution- Amendment 19." The U.S. Constitution Online May 2007 <
5 -Chapin. "Two's Company, Three's a Crowd. " Cartoon. Literary Digest -Chapin. "Two's Company, Three's a Crowd." Cartoon. Literary Digest. 6 June 2007 <
6 The 1st Equal Rights Amendment “Men and women shall have equal rights throughout the United States and every place subject to its jurisdiction.”It was first introduced to Congress in 1923.Made all forms of discrimination based on sex illegal.Never passed in Congress.-"Equal Rights Amendment." National Organization of Women NOW. 19 May 2007 <
7 Women’s Revolution of 1960s The Women's Rights Movement of the 1960s was a second wave of activism.The women's movement of the 1960s drew inspiration from the civil rights movementIt was largely made up of members of the middle classIt was also caused by the sexual revolution of the 1960sSparked by the development of the birth-control pill in 1960-Eisenberg, Bonnie, and Mary Ruthsdotter. "Living the Legacy: the Women's Rights Movement " Women's Rights Movement June 2007 <Martin Luther King Jr. giving his "I Have A Dream“, 1963
8 National Organization for Women (NOW) Founded in 1966.Founded by a group of people, including Betty Friedan, and Rev. Pauli Murray.The first African-American woman Episcopal priest.Betty Friedan became the organization's first president.-"NOW." National Organization for Women. 4 June 2007 <
9 Goals of Women’s Movement NOW’s goal was to gain equality for women.Campaigned to gain passage of new ERA amendment.Issues for NOW:Eliminate discrimination and harassment in the workplace, schools, and the justice system.Secure abortion, birth control & reproductive rightsEnd all forms of violence against womenEradicate racism, sexism and homophobiaPromote equality and justice in society.-"NOW." National Organization for Women. 4 June 2007 <
10 Equal Pay Act 1963First federal law prohibiting sexual discrimination.It abolished wage differences based on sex.“No employer having employees subject to any provisions of this section [section 206 of title 29 of the United States Code] shall discriminate, within any establishment in which such employees are employed, between employees on the basis of sex by paying wages to employees in such establishment at a rate less than the rate at which he pays wages to employees of the opposite sex in such establishment for equal work on jobs…” Equal Pay ActIn 1963 the average female worker’s wages in the US were equivalent to 58.9 % of the average male worker’s earnings.How has this changed? Use CT Exercises!-"The Equal Pay Act of 1963." Essortment June 2007 <
11 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 Passed in 1964. It banned discrimination in employment on the basis of color, race, national origin, religion, or sex.Title VII set up the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to enforce the act.-"1960s." Women of the Century Discovery Channel. 1 June 2007 <
12 Griswold v. Connecticut Click to read more Estelle Griswold was the executive director of Planned Parenthood League.The case involved a Connecticut law that prohibited the use of contraceptives.Ruled that the Constitution protected a right to privacy.Found that Connecticut should allow married couples to use birth control.-Griswold V. Connecticut. Warren Court. 7 June June 2007 <Chief Justice Earl Warren (top), Estelle Griswold (right)
13 Roe v. Wade Click to read more Handed down in 1972.Legalized abortion with few restrictions. Mainly, st trimester limits.Used Griswold decision as a precedentRemains controversial.Many test cases have further restricted access, but have not overturned the right. Ex. Webster v. RHS (1989) & Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992) Read more!
14 The Equal Rights Amendment The ERA was approved by more than 2/3 of Congress in 1972 & sent to states35 states ratified it quickly and in 1977 it seemed like it would be passed.Women’s groups were divided over itThe deadline came in , by just one state, the amendment failed
15 Title IX Click to read more In 1972, Congress included Title IX in the Higher Education Act, providing, “No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal assistance.”Debate the pros & cons of this law. Is it still needed?
16 Can laws make gender distinctions? Yes, first allowed in Reed v. Reed case. Established the “reasonableness standard.”Today, the federal courts use the substantial relationship test as the standard. The government must show a very close connection between the law and its purpose. This is also known as the immediate scrutiny test.
17 Other ChallengesIn what 2 ways do the courts define sexual harassment?Quid pro quo (This for that!)Hostile work environmentEEOC investigates allegationsCourts have been inconsistent in the rulings.