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Human Population Growth
Demography The study of populations (size, growth, make-up)
Global Population Growth Humans have experienced exponential growth over time
Growth Factors Increased food production Increased hygiene (medicine) Better shelter (engineering)
Developed Countries Higher incomes Slow population growth Diverse industrial economics
Developing Countries Low incomes High population growth Simple Agricultural Economics
Predicting Growth Growth increases needs. We must predict growth to meet needs. (schools, hospitals, roads, etc)
Age Structure Diagram distribution of ages in a population at a certain time Pyramid shape indicates faster growth
Survivorship curve the percentage of members of a population that are likely to survive to any given age.
Fertility Rates Average number of children a woman gives birth to in her lifetime.
Migration Moving of individuals between areas.
Life Expectancy The average number of years individuals in a population are likely to live
Demographic transition Describes how changes in industry have affected growth
Infrastructure Basic facilities and services that support a community (water, power, sewer, roads, etc) Usually lacking in rapidly growing underdeveloped nations.
Water water for drinking, washing, and sewage may not be separated. (no water treatment to clean it)
Fuel Fuel is needed for warmth, boiling drinking water, and cooking (wood in underdeveloped places) Leads to deforestation
Arable Land Arable land or natural habitats start being used for housing.
Urbanization More developed nations begin moving into concentrated cities for work Leads to traffic pollution, overcrowding, strain on infrastructure
Managing Growth Negative effects of rapid growth has led some nations to limit birth rates (China, India, etc) Ads, Family planning, Economic incentives, or legal punishments.
Slowing Growth Lower birth rates are slowing growth. Some nations are actually getting smaller
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