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1 Lindsey Miller and Reid Scholz LanguageLindsey Miller and Reid Scholz
2 LanguageLanguage is a system of communication through speech, a collection of sounds that a group of people understands to have the same meaning.Many languages have a literacy tradition which is a system of written languageThere are a estimated of 6,909 languages in the world, many countries designate at least one official language.Hyperpolyglot
3 Language Definitions http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=irGk5PItLgk Proto-tongue is the very first languageLanguage divergence – When speakers of the same language scatter and develop variations of that original form of languageLanguage shift- when speakers come into contact with other languages, a blending of the two or more language can occurLanguage replacement- occurs when invaders replace the language of those places they conquer. Can lead to extinction of the language and its also be when a language is no longer used.
4 Language Definitions Ctd. Reverse Reconstruction- Is the process that begins with the most recent places of the languages existence and moves backward through time,Dialect- Regional variations within a standard language and differences in pronunciation grammar, and vocabulary.Language Family- Collection of individual languages believed to be related in their prehistorical origin.
5 Language Definitions Ctd Language branch- Collection of languages that possesses a definite common origin but has split into individual languagesLanguage group- Collection of several individual languages that is part of a language branch, shares a common origin in the recent past, and has relatively similar grammar and vocabulary.
6 Language HearthsTraditional approaches in cultural geography have identified the source areas of the worlds languages and the paths of diffusion of those languages from their places of origins.
7 Indo- European Branches Indo- European is the most common familyIndo- European family is divided into eight branchesThey are Germanic, Indo- Iranian, Baltic languages, Romance, Albanian, Armenian, Greek, and Celtic.
8 Germanic Branch West Germanic -Language group in Germanic branch -English is a part of this group-English and German have many words in common-Further divided High and Low Germanic
9 West Germanic Branch High Germanic -Found in high elevations in Germany and spoken in southern mountains-Is the modern standard German languageLow Germanic-English-Dutch-Flemish
10 Indo-Iranian Branch Includes more than 100 million speakers The two Branches are the Eastern group (Indic) and Western group (Iranian)Indic-Most widely used in India, Pakistan and BangladeshIranian-Includes Persian, Pashto, and Kurdish-Spoken in Iran and Southwestern Asia
11 Baltic-Slavic Branch Divided into East, West, South, and Baltic East -Most widely used of the Slavic languages-Part of the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian languagesWest Slavic-Includes the Polish, Czech, and Slovak languagesSouth-Spoken in Bosnia, Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Herzegovina
12 Romance Branch Four most widely used is -Spanish -Portuguese -French -Italian
13 Language Tree Linguist have organized languages into a language tree Tree is subdivided into-19 language families-Each family has its own branches-Each branch has its own groups-Each group has its own language
14 Classification of Languages Family% spoken by in the worldIndo-European45%Sino-Tibetan22%Afro-Asiatic6%Austronesian5%Niger-Congo4%Altaic2%Austro-AsiaticJapanese
15 Preserving LanguageThe distribution of language is a measure of the fate of an ethnic group.Extinct Languages-Languages no longer spoken or read in daily activitiesReviving Extinct Languages-Hebrew language is an example of one of the languages that have been revived.
16 Multilingual State Conflict CanadaEnglish and French LanguagesFrench speakers in Quebec, have fought for increased recognition and power against the English speaking Canadian majorityBelgiumDutch and French LanguagesThe Dutch-speaking north and French-speaking south compete for power and controlCyprusGreek and Turkish LanguagesGreek majority and Turkish minority compete for control of this island-countryNigeriaHausa, Yoruba, Ibo and 230 others LanguagesHausa speakers in the north, Yoruba in the southwest and Ibo in the southeast paint a divided Nigeria in which some 230 other complicate Nigeria's unification.
17 Monolingual States Country with one official language. Few only exist Examples are Japan and France.Japan-Relatively monolingual due to its immigration lawsFrance-Fought to preserve monolingual heritage
18 Isolated LanguagesA language unrelated to any other and therefore not attached to any language familyArise through lack of interaction with speakers of other languages
19 Global Dominance of English Lingua Franca-Language of international communication-Mixing two languages into common simple languagePidgin Language-A simplified form of lingua franca-Mix some elements of own languageEbonics-Distinctive African American Dialect
20 Global Dominance of English English words have been increasingly integrated into other languagesFranglais- French and EnglishSpanglish- Spanish and EnglishDenglish- Diffusion of English into German