2 Work AnalysisWork analysis—a systematic process of gathering information about work, jobs, and the relationship between jobschronological steps in conducting effective work analysiswhat are the required outcomes/measures for assessing strategy execution (e.g., customer requirements for products/services derived from the strategic plan)?what are necessary, critical, essential tasks, activities, behaviors, required to meet or exceed the requirements established in step 1? What are the relative importance, frequency, and essentiality of these tasks for achieving measures at step 1?what are the necessary knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics or competencies required to perform the activities at step 2?how should jobs/work be defined? Where does the work get done to maximize efficiency/effectiveness? Do we use individual jobs, work teams, independent contractors, full-time/part-time? Do we outsource?
3 KASOCsKnowledge—an organized body of information, usually of a factual or procedural nature applied directly to the performance of a function.Ability—a demonstrated competence to perform an observable behavior or a behavior that results in an observable product.Skill—a competence to perform a learned, psychomotor act, and may include a manual, verbal, or mental manipulation of data, people, or things.Other characteristics—personality factors (attitudes), aptitudes, or physical or mental traits needed to perform the job.
4 What Are the Major Goals for Work Analysis? the objective of work analysis should be the description of observables – behavior or trait often not observable but products, outcomes, kinds of materials, and people included in decision process arework analysis consists of a description of work behavior independent of the personal characteristics of particular people who perform the job – focus is on the position, not on the person in the positionwork analysis data must be verifiable and reliable – organization must maintain records of the work analysis data, and be able to justify job analysis judgments
5 Legal Significance of Work Analysis Supreme Court has emphasized importance of demonstrating job relatedness of selection systems (Albemarle v. Moody).lawsuits by women claiming lack of job relatedness in Police an Firefighter physical requirementslawsuits by older workers contesting mandatory retirement agesGreater likelihood that KASOCs and tasks needed to complete job seen more positively when work analysis:uses representative sample of job incumbentsrepresents breadth of tasks to be completed on the jobin written formspecifies level of competency for entry-level work
6 Products of Work Analysis Major products of work analysisjob descriptionjob classificationjob evaluationjob design/restructuringjob specificationsperformance appraisalworker trainingworker mobility/succession planningefficiencysafetyhuman resource planninglegal/quasi-legal requirements
9 Dimensions on Which Work Analysis May Vary Types of Informationtask- or job-orientedperson- or worker-orientedtrait-orientedForm of the job informationqualitative or quantitativeLevel of standardization of informationquantitative informationcontent similar for group of jobsSources of job informationrecording devices, diaries, job incumbents
10 Collection Methods Major collection methods of work analysis observation—direct observation of job duties, work sampling or observation of segments of job performance, and indirect recording of activitiesperforming the job—actual performance of job duties by the analystinterviews—individual and group interviews with job incumbents, supervisors, subordinates, clients, or other knowledgeable sourcescritical incidents—descriptions of behavioral examples of exceptionally poor or good performance, and context and consequences in which they occurdiaries—descriptions of daily work activities by incumbentsbackground records—review of relevant materials including organization chars, Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT), company training manuals, organizational policies and procedures manuals, or existing job descriptionsquestionnaires—structured forms and activity checklist (PAQ, FJA, JDS, MPDQ, JCQ, O*NET forms) as well as open ended or unstructured questions
11 Work Analysis Formal Methods Most useful work analysis methodsPosition Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)Management Position Description Questionnaire (MPDQ)competency modelingO*Netfunctional job analysis (FJA)critical incident technique (CIT)Job Compatibility Questionnaire (JCQ)Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS)Multimethod Job Design Questionnaire (MJDQ)
12 Which Method is Best? PAQ (www.paq.com) FJA CIT Identifies specific tests to use for hiring and estimates validityjob evaluationalso useful for job descriptionsFJAjob descriptionjob classificationjob designCITperformance appraisal instrumenttraining programs
13 Sample Items from the PAQ Source: E.J. McCormick & P.R. Jeanneret, “Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ),” in The Job Analysis Handbook for Business, Industry, and Government ed. S. Gael, vol. II, pp Reprinted with permission.
14 Sample Items from the PAQ Source: E.J. McCormick & P.R. Jeanneret, “Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ),” in The Job Analysis Handbook for Business, Industry, and Government ed. S. Gael, vol. II, pp Reprinted with permission.
15 Sample Items from the PAQ Source: E.J. McCormick & P.R. Jeanneret, “Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ),” in The Job Analysis Handbook for Business, Industry, and Government ed. S. Gael, vol. II, pp Reprinted with permission.
16 What is O*Net?O*NET, the Occupational Information Network, is a comprehensive database of worker attributes and job characteristics. As the replacement for the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT), O*NET will be the nation’s primary source of occupational information.O*NET is being developed as a timely, easy-to-use resource that supports public and private sector efforts to identify and develop the skills of the American workforce. It provides a common language for defining and describing occupations. Its flexible design also captures rapidly changing job requirements. In addition, O*NET moves occupational information into the technological age.As the basis for enhanced product development, the O*NET database can serve as the engine that drives value-added applications designed around core information. It provides the essential foundation for facilitating career counseling, education, employment, and training activities. The database contains information about knowledges, skills, abilities (KSAs), interests, general work activities (GWAs), and work context. O*NET data and structure will also link related occupational, educational, and labor market information databases to the system.
17 Uses for O*NetAlign educational and job training curricula with current workplace needs.Create occupational clusters based on KSA information.Develop job descriptions or specifications, job orders, and resumes.Facilitate employee training and development initiatives.Develop and supplement assessment tools to identify worker attributes.Structure compensation and reward systems.Evaluate and forecast human resource requirements.Design and implement organizational development initiatives.Identify criteria to establish performance appraisal and management systems.Identify criteria to guide selection and placement decisions.Create skills-match profiles.Explore career options that capitalize on individual KSA profiles.Target recruitment efforts to maximize person-job-organizational fit.Improve vocational and career counseling efforts.
18 The O*Net Foundation Common Language O*NET offers a common language for communication across the economy and among workforce development efforts. It provides definitions and concepts for describing worker attributes and workplace requirements that can be broadly understood and easily accepted. Using comprehensive terms to describe the KSAs, interests, content, and context of work, O*NET provides a common frame of reference for understanding what is involved in effective job performance.The goal of O*NET’s common language is straightforward: “improve the quality of dialogue among people who communicate about jobs in the economy, generate employment statistics, and develop education and training programs.” It provides the shared foundation of language upon which to build private and public sector workforce development efforts. Employer hiring requirements will have the same meaning for human resource practitioners, workers, education and training developers, program planners, and students.Conceptual FrameworkThe conceptual foundation of O*NET is called the Content Model. The Content Model provides a framework for classifying, organizing, and structuring O*NET data.
19 O*NET Content Model O*NET Experience Requirements Training Experience LicensureWorker RequirementsBasic SkillsCross-Functional SkillsKnowledgeEducationOccupational RequirementsGeneralized Work ActivitiesWork ContextOrganizational ContextO*NETWorker CharacteristicsAbilitiesOccupational Values InterestsWork StylesOccupation-Specific RequirementsOccupational Skills, KnowledgeTasks, DutiesMachines, Tools, and EquipmentOccupation CharacteristicsLabor Market InformationOccupational OutlookWages. Source: N.G. Peterson, et al. “Understanding Work Using the Occupational Information Network (O*NET): Implications for Practice and Research,”Personnel Psychology 54 (2001), p Reprinted with permission.
20 Summary O*Net Report for HR Managers Positions Description – Plan, direct, and coordinate human resource management activities of an organization to maximize the strategic use of human resources and maintain functions such as employee compensation, recruitment, personnel policies, and regulatory compliance.Sample of reported job titles – Human Resources Manager, Director of Human Resources, HR Director (Human Resources Director), Employee Benefits Manager, Employee Relations Manager
21 Summary O*Net Report for HR Managers: Tasks Administer compensation, benefits and performance management systems, and safety and recreation programs.Identify staff vacancies and recruit, interview and select applicants.Allocate human resources, ensuring appropriate matches between personnel.Provide current and prospective employees with information about policies, job duties, working conditions, wages, opportunities for promotion and employee benefits.Perform difficult staffing duties, including dealing with understaffing, refereeing disputes, firing employees, and administering disciplinary procedures.Advise managers on organizational policy matters such as equal employment opportunity and sexual harassment, and recommend needed changes.Analyze and modify compensation and benefits policies to establish competitive programs and ensure compliance with legal requirements.Plan and conduct new employee orientation to foster positive attitude toward organizational objectives.Serve as a link between management and employees by handling questions, interpreting and administering contracts and helping resolve work-related problems.Plan, direct, supervise, and coordinate work activities of subordinates and staff relating to employment, compensation, labor relations, and employee relations.
22 Summary O*Net Report for HR Managers: Knowledge Personnel and Human Resources—Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.English Language—Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.Customer and Personal Service—Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.Law and Government—Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.Education and Training—Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.Economics and Accounting—Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking and the analysis and reporting of financial data.Psychology—Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
23 Summary O*Net Report for HR Managers: Skills Active Listening—Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.Management of Personnel Resources—Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.Reading Comprehension—Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.Writing—Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.Speaking—Talking to others to convey information effectively.Negotiation—Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.Time Management—Managing one’s own time and the time of others.Social Perceptiveness—Being aware of others’ reactions and understanding why they react as they do.Critical Thinking—Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.Monitoring—Monitoring/assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
24 Summary O*Net Report for HR Managers: Abilities Oral Comprehension—The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words andsentences.Oral Expression—The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.Written Comprehension—The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.Written Expression—The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.Speech Recognition—The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.Speech Clarity—The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.Problem Sensitivity—The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.Deductive Reasoning—The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.Inductive Reasoning—The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).Originality—The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
25 Summary O*Net Report for HR Managers: Work Activities Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships—Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates—Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, or in person.Making Decisions and Solving Problems—Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.Staffing Organizational Units—Recruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting.Getting Information—Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information.Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People—Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others—Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates—Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards—Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.Coaching and Developing Others—Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
26 Summary O*Net Report for HR Managers: Work Context Telephone—How often do you have telephone conversations in this job?Indoors, Environmentally Controlled—How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlledconditions?Structured versus Unstructured Work—To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals?Contact With Others—How much does this job require the worker to be in contact with others (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) in order to perform it?Electronic Mail—How often do you use electronic mail in this job?Spend Time Sitting—How much does this job require sitting?Freedom to Make Decisions—How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?Importance of Being Exact or Accurate—How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?Face-to-Face Discussions—How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?Letters and Memos—How often does the job require written letters and memos?
27 Summary O*Net Report for HR Managers: Job Zone Overall experienceA minimum of two to four years of work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is needed for these occupations. For example, an accountant must complete four years of college and work for several years in accounting to be considered qualified.Job trainingEmployees in these occupations usually need several years of work-related experience, on-the-job training, and/or vocational training.Job zoneMany of these occupations involve coordinating, supervising.ExamplesManaging, or training others. Examples include accountants, chefs and head cooks, computer programmers, historians, pharmacists, and police detectives.SVP range(7.0 to 8.0)EducationMost of these occupations require a four-year bachelor’s degree, but some do not.
28 Summary O*Net Report for HR Managers: Interests Enterprising—Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.Social—Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.Conventional—Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
29 Summary O*Net Report for HR Managers: Work Styles Concern for Others—Job requires being sensitive to others’ needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.Attention to Detail—Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.Integrity—Job requires being honest and ethical.Initiative—Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.Independence—Job requires developing one’s own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.Persistence—Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.Dependability—Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.Stress Tolerance—Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.Leadership—Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.Self Control—Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
30 Summary O*Net Report for HR Managers: Work Values & Related Occupations Achievement—Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.Independence—Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employs to work on their own and make decisions.Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.Related OccupationsAdministrative Services ManagersMedical and Health Services ManagersPostmasters and Mail SuperintendentsTraining and Development Specialists
31 Summary O*Net Report for HR Managers: Wages and Employment 2003LocationPay Period10%25%Median75%90%U.S.Hourly$19.03$24.86$33.82$45.15$58.71Yearly$39,600$51,700$70,800$93,900$122,100Florida$18.94$23.78$31.78$41.65$53.65$39,400$49,500$66,100$86,600$111,600Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics Survey; Florida Agency of Workforce Innovation.
32 Summary O*Net Report for HR Managers: State and National Trends Human resources managers, which includes Compensation and Benefits Managers; Human Resources Managers, All Other; Training and Development Managers.EmploymentPercentChangeUnited States20022012Job Openings1Human Resource Managers202,200241,600+19%7,350Florida6,0407,570+25%2601Job Openings refers to the average annual job openings due to growth and net replacement.
33 Sample Questions from the Job Diagnostic Survey A copy of the Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) can is presented in Critical Thinking Application 4-B, p. 397.1. To what extent do managers or co-workers let you know how well you are doing on your job?2. In general, how significant or important is your job? That is, are the results of your work likely to significantly affect the lives or well-being of other people?3. How much autonomy is there in your job?4. To what extent does your job involve doing a “whole’’ and identifiable piece of work?5. How much variety is there in your job? That is, to what extent does the job require you to do many different things at work using a variety of your skills and talents?6. To what extent does your job require you to work closely with other people (either clients or people in related jobs in your organization)?7. To what extent does doing the job itself provide you with information about your work performance? That is, does the actual work itself provide clues about how well you are doing—aside from the feedback co-workers or managers may provide?
34 JOB COMPATIBILITY QUESTIONNARE (JCQ) Work analysis method used to derive selection test.Data used to convert work analysis results into a selection test.JCQ theory is that the greater the compatibility in preferences for job and actual job characteristics, the longer the job tenure.Incumbents complete questionnaire and responses are used to group items derive the scoring key for the selection test.Predicts retention/turnover for low wage jobs.No research related to managerial/supervisory jobs.JCQ also effective for redesigning jobs.
35 Can Work Analysis Data be Biased? Job analysis data are generally free of gender or racial bias.Courts have been critical of gender/ racial makeup of committees responsible for conducting job analyses-should be representative.Incumbents tend assign more importance to tasks.Incumbents and supervisors agree more on tasks than attributes or competencies.Better results from those that know jobs better.Best to have large number of experts rating KASOCs and job specifications.More research on bias is needed.