Presentation on theme: "Dwellings What are these two types of dwellings, and which cultures used each? \ Made of animal hide, the tepee is a type of Native American dwelling."— Presentation transcript:
3 DwellingsWhat are these two types of dwellings, and which cultures used each? \Made of animal hide, the tepee is a type of Native American dwelling. In contrast, settlers typically built houses from sod.How does each type of shelter reflect the lifestyle of the two cultures? Tepees were adapted to the nomadic culture of Native Americans and facilitated ease of movement, as many groups roamed great distances following buffalo on the open range. Sod houses were adapted to the permanent settlement culture of the settlers.
4 Cultural DifferencesNative American Way of Life Many Native American groups were nomadic. Traveling in groups of extended families, they were dependent largely on the buffalo for food, clothing, and shelters. They believed in the spiritual power of the natural world. While certain groups claimed lands as hunting grounds, the concept of land ownership did not align with their spiritual beliefs.Threats by Settlement Farmers and ranchers threatened the Native American way of life with permanent settlements, planted acreage, and livestock drives. Miners threatened Native Americans when they sought lands occupied by Native Americans where valuable minerals had been discovered.
5 BuffaloHow did the buffalo affect the way of life for Plains Indians?Many Native Americans relied on the buffalo for food, shelter, and clothing. As the buffalo roamed the open range, many Plains Indians lived as nomads, following the buffalo.How did the westward movement of settlers affect Plains Indians in different ways?Miners often settled in areas such as the Black Hills of the Dakota Territory, where gold had been discovered, forcing Native Americans off of land that had been guaranteed to them. Ranchers fenced in large areas of land and killed off buffalo that competed with their livestock for grazing land. Farmers plowed up sod to plant crops, which deprived buffalo of their food source.
6 Discuss the conflicts that arose between Plains Indians and settlers as Western settlement increased.
7 Struggles of the Plains Indians Westward Migration Miners, ranchers, and farmers moved westward in the mid-1800s, settling in areas that had long been home to Native Americans and to the enormous buffalo herds that sustained them.Nomadic Culture Many Plains Indians lived as nomads, following the buffalo. As the buffalo population was decimated by settlement, Native American culture was threatened. Violence broke out in the 1860s.Early Battles Major early battles include the Dakota Sioux Uprising, Red Cloud’s War (noted on the map within the callout for the second Treaty of Laramie), and the Sand Creek Massacre.
8 Native American Conflicts Why do you think some Native Americans attacked settlers as well as troops?Both groups had built permanent structures or otherwise taken over Native American hunting grounds.
9 The Reservation System Separation The Indian Peace Commission established a reservation system with the goal of separating the Native American population from settlers.Compensation The commission promised the Native Americans compensation for the disruption of their way of life.Broken Promises Government payments to Native Americans rarely arrived. Starvation led to violence.
10 ReservationsWhat adaptations might Native Americans have had to make when they went to reservations?They would have needed to change from a nomadic lifestyle to one of homesteading, like that of some settler groups.
11 Activity Write a paragraph in response to the Guiding Question: How did westward migration change the Plains Indians’ way of life?