Presentation on theme: "What is a Watershed? (or Drainage Basin)"— Presentation transcript:
1 What is a Watershed? (or Drainage Basin) REVIEW!What is a Watershed? (or Drainage Basin)… the land area that drains runoff (rain or snow) into a lake, stream or river.The boundaries of a watershed,are hilltops and ridges.Source: Doppelt, Bob, Mary Scurlock, Chris Frissell, and James Karr. (1993: xiv). Entering the Watershed: A new approach to save America's River Ecosystems. Washington, DC: Island Press. Copyright: Pacific Rivers Council.
2 How Does Your Watershed connect to the Great Lakes Watershed? REVIEW!How Does Your Watershed connect to the Great Lakes Watershed?U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
3 What are the Benefits of a Healthy Watershed Clean waterFlood controlGood fish & wildlife habitatGreater biodiversityMore productive for timber & grazingHigher property valuesMore attractive
4 Land Uses & Water Pollution Sources Christopher GaleBill TaftBy Joan Schumaker Chadde, Western U.P. Center for Science, Mathematics and Environmental Education. All photos by Chadde, unless otherwise noted.
5 Land Uses & Water Pollution Sources Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper:How does what we do on land affect water quality?2.How does pollution get from one place to another?
6 What are land uses?The ways that people use the land.Brainstorm
7 What are Land Uses? Grazing Farming (Agriculture) Forestry (logging) MiningRecreation (motorized & non-motorized)ResidentialCommercialIndustryWildlife habitatPreservation (wild & scenic)
8 What types of pollutants might enter our watershed through land use?
10 What are point and non-point sources of pollution?
11 Point and Non-point Sources of Water Pollution Point = water pollutants discharged from a pipe into lakes and rivers.Nonpoint = water pollutants carried by runoff over land and into lakes and rivers.
12 Point source pollution = water pollutants discharged from a pipe
13 Nonpoint Source Pollution = pollutants carried by water as it runs off over the land. The type of pollutant (sediment, fertilizer, nutrients, pesticides, etc.) depends upon the type of land use.Michigan Department of Environmental Quality
14 Water Quality & Possible Pollutants (Page 69) Work with a partner on Pg. 69 to brainstorm at least two possible sources of pollution for each type of pollutant.Do this in pencil. We will go over the correct answers before the end of class.
15 Water Quality & Possible Pollutants (Page 69) Possible Sources1. NutrientsLivestock (animal wastes) too close to streamFertilizer used on crops or lawnsHuman wastes from failing septic systems2. SedimentRoad crossing a streamEroding stream banksLivestock too close to streamAll-terrain vehicles driving through a stream3. BacteriaFailing septic systemsWastewater treatment plant overflowsLivestock waste too close to streamWildlife and pet wastes
16 Water Quality & Possible Pollutants (Page 69) Possible Sources4. PesticidesResidential lawns and gardensGolf courses and city parksCrop land5. Oil, gas, metalsParking lot runoffLeaking underground gasoline storage tanks6. SaltHighwaysIndustry7. Toxic materialsLand fillBusinesses (dry cleaners, etc.)
17 *Fill in your student sheet (Pg. 71) as you view the slides. Land Use and Water Quality*Fill in your student sheet (Pg. 71) as you view the slides.Identify the land use shown in the photo?Identify what type of pollutants might result from the land use (shown in the photo) and possibly affect the water quality of a nearby stream?
26 Land Use and Water Quality PhotoLand usePossible Pollutants1Parking LotUrbanCommercial DevelopmentRoad saltSedimentAutomotive fluids (toxic chemicals)Motor oil (toxic chemicals)2Forest managementLogging road3HomesNeighborhoodResidentialPesticides (toxic chemicals)Fertilizers (nutrients)Pet wastes (bacteria & nutrients)4AgricultureLivestock grazingAnimal feedlotAnimal wastes (bacteria & nutrients)
27 Land Use and Water Quality PhotoLand usePossible Pollutants5New ConstructionSediment6Stream channel(straightened due to urban development)Road saltAutomotive fluids (toxic chemicals)Motor oil (toxic chemicals)Waterfowl wastes7CityUrban area8AgricultureCroplandFertilizerPesticides
28 Leading Sources of Water Quality Impairment to Rivers (MICHIGAN*) Physical stream alterations (e.g. channelization or straightening)Agriculture (crop runoff and animal feedlots)SedimentIndustrial Point SourceHabitat modification (loss of streamside riparian vegetation)Combined sewer overflowsMunicipal Point SourceConstructionLeading pollutants:organic compounds, pathogens, sediment, mercury, low dissolved oxygen, nutrients, metals (copper, chromium)* 2004 Water Quality and Pollution Control in Michigan: Sections 303(d) and 305(b) Integrated Report, MI DEQ Water Division, page34.
29 Leading Sources of Water Quality Impairment to Rivers (U.S.*) 1. Agricultural runoff(farming and livestock)2. Municipal point sources(sewage treatment plants)3. Streamside habitat changes(channelization, dredging, flow modifications)Leading pollutants:bacteria, nutrients, metals (primarily mercury), sediment* 2000 National Water Quality Inventory (EPA report). Data received on 33% of U.S. waters were assessed for this report.
30 How can we reduce or prevent pollution ? BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (BMPs)…are designed to control, prevent, remove,or reduce pollution. Three BMP categories:1. Structural PracticesGrass or rock-lined drainage ditches.Fence livestock away from streamSedimentation basin for parking lot runoff2. Vegetative PracticesCover cropsLeave tree and shrub “buffer strips” along streams3. Management PracticesNo till farming (don’t plow)Rotate pastures used for livestock grazingNo grazing, logging, or building houses right next to a stream
31 Land Use and Water Quality (pg. 71) Go back to Page 71 and complete the Best management practices section with the people at your table.Do this in pencil. We will correct it before the end of the class.
32 Land Use and Water Quality PhotoBest Management Practice (BMP)1Porous asphalt of pervious concreteVegetated islands in parking lotRunoff retention pond to collect runoff and allow time for infiltrationReduce parking lot sizeCreate vegetated or rock-lined drainage channel for storm water runoff to slowly seep into the ground2Maintain vegetated buffer along stream to filter out sedimentDo not locate roads immediately adjacent to streams3Use minimal amounts of pesticides and fertilizers on lawnsPick up and dispose of pet wastesMaintain areas of native vegetation to promote infiltrationIrrigate lawn sparingly4Maintain vegetative buffer along streams to slow and filter runoff
33 Land Use and Water Quality PhotoBest Management Practice (BMP)5Use erosion control fabric to prevent disturbed soil from moving off-site6Maintain vegetative buffer along streams to slow and filter runoff7Maintain vegetative buffer along lake to slow and filter runoff8