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Chapter 3 Individual Differences and Work BehaviorJohn M. Ivancevich Michael T. Matteson Slides Prepared by Bruce R. Barringer University of Central Florida © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
Learning Objectives Slide 1 of 2Identify the major individual variables that influence work behavior. Describe how attributions influence our behavior. Distinguish between stereotyping and prejudice. Explain what an attitude is and identify its three components. © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
Learning Objectives Slide 2 of 2Discuss the relationship between job satisfaction and performance. Describe the major forces influencing personality. Identify the Big Five personality dimensions. Discuss several important personality factors. © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
Exhibit 3.1: Variables that Influence Work BehaviorIndividual Behavior Work Behavior Organizational Behavior - Demographic factors - Abilities and skills - Perception - Attitudes - Personality - Productive - Nonproductive - Counterproductive - Resources - Leadership - Rewards - Structure - Job Design © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
Individual DifferencesTo Understand Individual Differences a Manager Must Observe and recognize the differences Study relationships between variables that influence individual behavior Discover relationships © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
Demographic Factors Demographic factors include a number of individual differences that influence behavioral choices Nationality Race Age Socioeconomic Background Educational Attainment Sex © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
© McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999Abilities and Skills Innate Learned - Spatial Orientation - Hand-Eye Coordination - Numerical facility - Using a keyboard - Operating equipment - Driving an automobile © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
© McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999Perception Perception Is the cognitive process by which an individual gives meaning to the environment. Perception refers to the acquisition of specific knowledge about objects or events at any particular moment, it occurs whenever stimuli activate the senses. Stereotyping Is the process employed to assist individuals in dealing with massive information-processing demands. © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
How to Use Stereotyping More EffectivelyRemember that stereotypes are frequently based on little or no accurate information. Always be willing to change or add information that will improve the accuracy of your stereotypes. Understand that stereotypes rarely accurately apply to a specific individual. © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
Exhibit 3.3: The Attribution ProcessEvent Analysis of what caused the event Reinforcement or modification of previous assumptions of causality Choices regarding future behavior Example: I received a raise I received a raise because I am a hard worker Hard work leads to rewards in this organization Since I value these rewards, I will continue to work hard in the future © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
Exhibit 3.4: Internal and External AttributionsDistinctiveness Does the person behave in the same manner in different situations? Consistency Does this person behave in this same manner at other times? Consensus Do other people behave in this same manner? Internal Attribution Yes Yes No Low Distinctiveness High Consistency Low Consensus No No Yes External Attribution Low Consistency High Distinctiveness High Consensus © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
© McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999Attribution Errors Fundamental Attribution Error Tendency to underestimate the importance of external factors and overestimate the important of internal factors when making attribution about the behavior of others. Self-Serving Bias The tendency that people have to take credit for successful work and deny responsibility for poor work. © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
© McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999Attitudes Defined An attitude is a mental stage of readiness, learned and organized through experience, exerting a specific influence on a person’s response to people, objects, and situations with which it is related. © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
Exhibit 3.5: The Three Components of AttitudesStimuli Work environment factors Job Design Managerial style Company policies Technology Cognition Beliefs and values “My supervisor is unfair.” “Having a fair supervisor is important to me.” Affect Feelings and emotions “I don’t like my supervisor.” Behavior Intended behavior “I’m going to request a transfer.” © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
Attitudes Associated with Job SatisfactionWork Itself Job Security Supervision Co-workers Promotion Opportunities Working Conditions Pay © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
Exhibit 3.6: Satisfaction-Performance Relationship: Three Views1. Job satisfaction Job Performance “The satisfied worker is more productive.” 2. Job satisfaction Job Performance “The more productive worker is satisfied.” Perceived equity 3. Job performance Job satisfaction Rewards © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
© McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999Personality Defined A relatively stable set of feelings and behaviors that have been significantly formed by genetic and environmental factors. © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
Exhibit 3.7: Some Major Forces Influencing PersonalityCultural forces Individual Personality Social class and other group membership forces Hereditary forces Family relationship forces © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
The Big Five Personality Model Slide 1 of 2Extroversion Refers to the tendency to be sociable, friendly, and expressive. Emotional Stability Refers to the tendency to experience positive emotional states. Agreeableness Being courteous, forgiving, tolerant, trusting, and self-hearted. © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
The Big Five Personality Model Slide 2 of 2Conscientiousness Is exhibited by those who are described as dependable, organized, and responsible. Openness to Experience Reflects the extent to which an individual has broad interests and is willing to be a risk-taker. © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
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