Presentation on theme: "AIM: HOW DID THE TASK OF REUNITING THE NATION CHALLENGE LINCOLN AND JOHNSON? Topic: Ten Percent Plan and Presidential Reconstruction."— Presentation transcript:
AIM: HOW DID THE TASK OF REUNITING THE NATION CHALLENGE LINCOLN AND JOHNSON? Topic: Ten Percent Plan and Presidential Reconstruction
Why is Reconstruction referred to as an extension of the Civil War? Battles over when southern states should return to the Union. Punishment/forgiveness Role of blacks/rights Was stronger federal government needed? Constitution unclear about which branch of government should act on these issues.
Lincoln Envisions Reconstruction Ten Percent Plan: Pardon to all Confederates who swore allegiance to Union and accepted abolition of slavery. Denied pardons to Confederates who had killed African-American war prisoners. States could hold constitutional conventions after 10% of voters had sworn allegiance to Union. Then states could hold elections and resume full participation in Union Lincoln’s plan didn’t “readmit” Southern states to the Union because in his view secession was not official because it was unconstitutional.
Radical Republicans Opposed Lincoln’s plan Believed that the Civil War was fought over moral issue of slavery Wanted true equality for blacks Thought Lincoln was too lenient on Confederates
Wade – Davis Act Congress tried to counter Lincoln’s plan Wade-Davis Act required ex-Confederates to take an oath of past and future loyalty and swear they had never willingly beared arms against the US Lincoln used pocket veto
Johnson’s Vision After the death of Lincoln… Presidential Reconstruction: pardoned southerners who swore allegiance to Union. Permitted each state to hold constitutional conventions without 10% swearing allegiance. State required to abolish slavery and ratify the 13 th amendment. States could then hold elections and resume participation in the Union.
Black Codes Once they resumed participation in the Union, the South enacted the black codes which: Restricted the rights of blacks Curfews, vagrancy (not working), labor contracts (had to work for specified period, if quit no pay) Women forced to work rather than care for children and could not own land
AIM: HOW DID CONGRESS DEAL WITH RECONSTRUCTION? Topic: Congressional Reconstruction
Effects of the Civil War on the South Devastated physically Destruction of railroads, canals, roads, bridges, farms, etc. Human toll Generation of young men gone, civilian deaths Economics Shock to feed Black men, Poor Whites competing for jobs, plantation owners lost property.
President Johnson Had no mandate to govern because he was an unelected former Democrat. Limited ability to influence Congress
Radical Republicans Controlled Congress North increasingly angry over poor treatment/brutality toward Blacks. Radical Republicans favored true equality between the races. Passed the 14 th Amendment wanted to protect civil rights for Blacks built into Constitution made Blacks citizens of the US
Reconstruction Act of 1867 South under military control of northern generals. Southern states ordered to hold elections for new delegates to create new state constitutions. All qualified male voters, including African Americans, to vote. Southerners who supported Confederacy temporarily barred from voting. Southern votes required to guarantee equal rights to all citizens. State required to ratify the 14 th Amendment.
President Johnson Impeached Tried to fire the Secretary of War Edwin Stanton because he was a friend of Radical Republicans. Violated Tenure of Office Act of 1867. Not removed from office.
15 th Amendment Gave African-Americans the right to vote. Most voted for Republicans. Many Whites angry, do not vote. Results is election of more than 600 African Americans to southern legislatures.
Carpetbaggers and Scalawags Emerged in the South after the Civil War. Wanted to profit. Carpetbaggers were northern republicans who moved South in order to gain political power or profit. Scalawags were white southern Republicans Not fashionable to be white and Republican in the South.