Factors in the Environment Community Family School Peers
Community Economics Crime School Support Exposure to Violence
Poverty Lifting children out of poverty can diminish some psychiatric symptoms. Decline in rates of deviant and aggressive behaviors linked to rise in incomes. E. Jane Costello.
Poverty Moving out of poverty –Decrease in frequency of psychiatric symptoms –Little effect anxiety and depression observed –Mediated by one factor: level of parental supervision –Strongest for behavioral symptoms (CD, ODD) Adding to the income of never-poor families had no effect on frequency of psychiatric symptoms
Family SES Family Size Parent Education Parent Psychopathology Siblings Alcohol / Drug Use Abuse
Family Maltreatment Types –Physical Maltreatment (punishment, abuse, family violence) –Sexual Abuse –Psychological Maltreatment (Neglect, emotional abuse, poor caretaking) Predictive of other maltreatment Negative family background strong predictors of: –level of physical abuse –psychological maltreatment –neglect –witnessing family violence
Adjustment The nature of the family environment contributed to adjustment (positive or maladjustment) –Insecurity –Fragmentation –Poor parental relationships during childhood –Alcohol / drug abuse –Parent psychopathology Specific maltreating behaviors have an immediate impact on children’s well-being Chronic aspects of the dysfunctional environment (e.g., parental attitudes and family dynamics) associated with the long-term adjustment problems of adults.
Negative/Positive Parenting Ineffective or uncaring parenting was a powerful predictor of adult failure (Doll and Lyon, 1998) Differentiation among positive parenting, parental involvement, poor monitoring and supervision, inconsistent discipline and corporal punishment –The negative, but not the positive, scales were found to be predictive of behavior problems in children –Positive parenting not evaluated as a moderator between negative parenting and behavior problems (Frick, 1994; Shelton et al., 1996)
Schools Quality Approach to Troubling Behavior High Suspension / Low Suspension Academic Opportunities Level of Engagement Available Services
Reading and EBD Well documented link between reading problems, conduct disorders, and delinquency problems, (Hinshaw & Hinshaw, 1992; Kazdin, 1987) 71% of children with EBD experience clinically significant language deficits (Benner, Nelson, Epstein, 2002) 57% of students with language deficits experience EBD (Benner, Nelson, Epstein, 2002)
PBIS Utilize three-tiered system –School-wide –Classroom –Individual Based on sound hypothetical interventions Spurious findings on effectiveness –Why???????
Peers Availability of Positive Peer Interactions Adequate Supervision of Peer Relations Exposure to Deviant Peers Reliance on Friendships
Peers and Internalization 305 adolescents with no mutual friends, non- deviant friends, or deviant friends at age 13 Adolescents with deviant friends –More delinquent than the other 2 groups –Similar levels of depression as friendless youth –Less lonely than friendless youth Friendships with deviant peers may protect against complete isolation / loneliness
Risk Factors Cumulative risk factors –Increase in juvenile court petitions –Decrease in high school or GED completion –Increased risk of delinquency –Increased psychopathology –Increased Risk of incarceration –Increased risk of unemployment –Increased risk of substance abuse
Protective Factors Preschool intervention Parent participation in early school experiences Ability to be task oriented Increased Supervision Academic Success Nurturing home environment Positive school environment
BEHAVIOR Other Adults Community SiblingsPeersIndividual School Staff TeachersParents Other Adults Home