Presentation on theme: "US History II Chapter 26 – Cold War Conflicts Section 2 – The Cold War Heats Up."— Presentation transcript:
US History II Chapter 26 – Cold War Conflicts Section 2 – The Cold War Heats Up
Civil War in China – 1937 Japanese invade China – Chinese Communists and Nationals halt their civil war and join together against Japan. – Communists, lead by Mao Sedong in the North and Nationals, lead by Chiang Kai-shek in the South.
Fighting Breaks Out – Cooperation between Nationals and Communists ends as soon as Japan is defeated. – 1944-1947 – US plays peacekeeper between the two groups. – US officials fail to negotiate peace. US doesn’t send troops, but does send $2 million in military equipment and supplies to help Nationalists – May 1949- US can’t help Nationals win, Chang and his military leaders fled to Taiwan
America reacts to Communist takeover. – American public stunned that China is now Communist. – Truman attacked for not doing enough. Why wasn’t stopping Communism in China as important as stopping it in Europe? – Response was that internal forces in China prevented US from being any further help. Any more pushing by US would have led to a war US wasn’t ready to fight. – Some Americans say US government riddles with Communists agents and that is why Communists win in China.
Koreans Go to War – At end of WWII, Japan controlled Korea. The 38 th Parallel is an imaginary line that splits Korea in half. Industry in North, farming in South. These 2 regions could not come together and prosper. – Like Germany, 2 nations formed. – One Communist, one not. – 1948 the Republic of Korea, South Korea, established in the US zone in the south. Communist’s formed the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea in the Soviet zone in the North
North Korea attacks South Korea – June 25, 1950- North Korea invades South Korea. – Americans are alarmed. Fearful that another Asian country will fall to the Communists. – Truman ordered air and naval support for South Korea. Congress supported this decision. – June 27, 1950 UN Security Council vote for member nations to help South Korea. – Soviets were boycotting UN for not recognizing Communist China and could not veto the resolution.
– 16 nations sent 520,000 troops to help South Korea. – US General Douglas MacArthur put in command of combined UN and South Korea forces. General Douglas MacArthur
The Chinese fight back – The war went on for a long time, at one point the U.S. had pushed the North Koreans back into their zone but China backed North Korea and they pushed back into South Korea
MacArthur recommends attacking China – The war was at a stand still when MacArthur tried to persuade Truman to attack China. – Truman was sure that if we attacked China, a country that had a mutual assistance pact with the Soviet Union, there would be a World War III. So, he refused MacArthur.
MacArthur vs Truman – MacArthur kept pushing to convince Truman but eventually Truman fired him. – Americans were at first outraged, but backed Truman and his ideas about WWIII.
Settling for Stalemate – It was not until 1951 that surprisingly the Soviet Union called for a cease-fire. Truce talks began and both sides reached an agreement on two points: 1.1. the location of the cease-fire line 2.2. the establishment of a demilitarized zone between opposing sides.
– Finally, in 1953 the two sides signed an armistice ending the war. – The war affected many American people. 54,000 American lives were lost and the war cost $67 billion in expenditures. – This war also led to the rejection of the Democratic Party and the election of a Republican president Dwight Eisenhower. – The war also increased fear of communist aggression and prompted a hunt for Americans who might be blamed for the communist gains