The History of the Internet 1960: There is no internet 1962-1969: The internet is first conceived under the U.S. Department of Defenses Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA), transforms from paper based, to network (ARPANET) intended to connect researchers in the United States through super- computers. 1970-1973: ARAPNET and immediate success. Though originally intended to share scientific data, email quickly becomes the most popular feature.
The History of the Internet contd 1985: Newsgroups and email common on many campuses. 1991: At the University of Minnesota, the first point and click internet is created. Creator, the first internet my mom can use. The ability to combine text, pictures, and sounds is introduced. 1993: Traffic on the Internet has a 341,634% annual growth rate. 1996: Nearly 10 million hosts, connecting 40 million people. (www.pbs.org/internet/timeline/timeline-txt.html)
Why Should Student Affairs Be Concerned? Astins Theory of Involvement: Theory can be summed with students learned by getting involved. Involvement leads to investment, which leads to retention and commitment. Tintos Theory of Student Departure: Encounters with structures and people in the university lead to a greater integration, and higher persistence. (Pascarella, E., Terenzini, P., 1991)
A Look at the Issues… Internet Dependency Internet Harassment Internet Stalking The Digital Divide Academic Dishonesty Legal Issues Increased Usage
Internet Dependency Since 1997, studies have been conducted that document the increasing use of internet on campus. Students, in one study, were characterized as Internet Dependant spent 229 minutes a day online for non-academic reasons, compared with 73 for non-dependent. As many as 6% spent more than 400 minutes per day- 7 hours! (Reisberg, 2000)
Internet Dependency (cont.) It is important to note that not all psychologists recognize internet addiction as a valid disorder. (DeAngelis, 2000) Many feel that increased computer use does not isolate, but rather, The internet is a community of chronic communicators (Strangelove, 1994, cited in Chenault, 2001) And in fact, relationships are abundant.
Internet Stalking In one instance the finger program of email was found to be a contributing factor in stalking incidents at the U. of Michigan. The stalker could see who was online, and at what terminal. As a result, the program was discontinued. (Olsen, 2001)
Internet Harassment At Pennsylvania State University, the computer security officer received 5-25 reports of computer harassment and misuse per day in 1999. (Rogerson, 2000) The availability of computers, the anonymity of confrontation, inability to judge tone, big brother qualities all contribute to internet harassment.
The Digital Divide In fall of 2000, the U.S. Department of Commerce found that : 51% of all U.S. homes had a computer; 41.5% of all U.S. homes had Internet access White (46.1%) and Asian American & Pacific Islander (56.8%) households continued to have Internet access at levels more than double those of Black (23.5%) and Hispanic (23.6%) households. 86.3% of households earning $75,000 and above per year had Internet access compared to 12.7% of households earning less than $15,000 per year. This discrepancy between the haves and have-nots will only grow if all services on a college campus shift online. Students who have never accessed online information would be placed at an extreme disadvantage, and it could be argued, are not given the same opportunity for an educational experience as those with technology experience. (Source: Falling Through the Net, 2000) http://www.ntia.doc.gov/ntiahome/fttn00/contents00.htmlFalling Through the Netttp://www.ntia.doc.gov/ntiahome/fttn00/contents00.html
Academic Dishonesty In 1998, Boston University filed suit against five on-line sites devoted to the selling of term papers. Though this particular case was dismissed, it demonstrates an increasing issue of Academic Dishonesty via the internet. (Guernsey, 1998)
Increased Usage The increased usage of the internet on campus has caused information technology departments to take a hard look at the amount of bandwidth offered. Universities are finding that regardless of bandwidth offered, demand exceeds supply, mostly due to increasing trade of MP3s and movies.
Legal Issues The law surrounding technology is ever changing, and should be a priority for Telnet to keep abreast. In terms of monitoring online activity, a review of literature seems to imply that universities CAN monitor online activity over their networks, but it is not REQUIRED.
Legal Issues The Communications Decency Act of 1996 would have had major implications for universities. It forbade the transmission of indecent material to minors under the age of 18. In Reno v. ACLU, the Supreme Court held that such was unconstitutional, and wholly unprecedented. (Roberts, 1998)
Legal Issues In 2000, the U.S. Supreme Court let stand a lower court ruling that an Internet service provider is not liable if an user defames someone in an email message or online bulletin board posting. (Carlson, 2000)
Legal Issues The Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 generally prohibits someone from interfering or intercepting electronic communication. Stored information is somewhat less protected. In U.S. V. Simons (1998) a CIA employees computer was searched after it was discovered that the employee had accessed a site with sexually explicit material. The employee challenged, but the judge determined there was no reasonable expectation on privacy. (Higgins, 1999)
Legal Issues Other legislation that must be considered (ALWAYS consult University counsel!!) F.E.R.P.A.- what is the line for student information privacy? Right to know laws- some states now include a persons cookies (internet history log!)
The Challenge of being a Wired Community… This is a question that seems to be asked again and again. How do we build community when we cant get students out of their rooms? Maybe it is time to stop looking at technology as the challenge, and start considering it the SOLUTION! Instead of focusing on how to get students off their computers, lets shift our focus on how to integrate this attention to building online communities that can enrich their collegiate experiences!
Learning From Distance Education Programs… There are several programs established that are utilized for distance learning. Instructors have the ability to: Schedule individual chat times Post the assignments and syllabus Students can have on-line discussions
Learning From Distance Education Programs… The most important learning is that with distance education we have thought outside of the box. Found a way that people with different lifestyles, in different places can join together in a class
Solutions Computer Use Policy IT Residence Life Campus Activities Admissions Counseling and Health Services
Computer Use Policy Telnet College needs to prioritize and establish an Acceptable Use Policy to assist students/faculty/staff in determining for what purposes the campus network can be used. For sample AUPs see: http://www.4c.net/documents/4cnet_policy.html http://www.msu.edu/dig/aup/msuaup.html http://www.upenn.edu/computing/policy/aup.html
IT (Information Technology) IT needs to undergo an assessment of the quality of the current technologies in place at Telnet College. Some areas that need to be scrutinized: Is there adequate bandwidth? Are there Shapers which prioritize the type of data coming through (email over MP3 files, etc.)? (see Olsen, 2001) Are there adequate virus shields and firewalls? Is there enough budget to keep up with the technology demands at Telnet College? Is there adequate staff? Is there grant money to implement improvement plans?
Residence Life Traditionally residence life has encouraged getting students out of their rooms to interact with others. This has been the predominate mode of programming. The challenge is that students are now spending even more time in their rooms The following ideas look at engaging students and promoting interactions via the computer. Note: We STRONGLY favor programs that build the cost of a laptop into every first year students tuition costs…we strongly feel this is necessary to give students a similar starting point. See: http://www.math.clemson.edu/~bmoss/carmichael.html
Residence Life Cyber Lounges Physical lounges in the residence hall will be equipped with data ports and furniture conducive for students gathering with their laptops. These areas: Provide an opportunity for visiting lecturers to integrate websites into presentations. Allow gaming online, while still maintaining personal contact. Provide opportunities for educational sessions for students not as adept at technology.
Residence Life Virtual Lounges Provide an online meeting place for students of particular interests. Could be opened to non-traditional and distance education students as well as traditional to create a bridge at any given institution. Available Residence Life staff for Q&A Chat nightly.
Residence Life--Assessment Have a monthly question asked on the residence life website. This will help to get a sense of the students interests Information gained can help focus programming and campus funding
Campus Activities Traditional Campus Activities offices have focused programming out of the halls, often in the central student meeting place, such as the student union. The challenge in the growing technology age is to provide activities using available technology and offer some activities online.
Campus Activities E-mail surveys to students Find out what performers students want to visit campus---provide digital recording samples Video library of past performances Students who missed the original performance could check out a copy.
Campus Activities--Logistics Web-based Calendar All campus events will listed in one central place Room Scheduling On-line Students, faculty and staff can reserve a room anywhere on campus via a central program On-line ticket sales
Campus Activities--Events Institute an unplugged series: Work with outdoor adventure programs to engage students with opportunities away from their computer terminals. This can be tied back to the internet by hosting preliminary discussions regarding preparations, and also reflections after the activity. Additionally, online evaluations could be utilized.
Campus Activities--Events On-line Olympics Event held annually to engage students in a campus-wide event Games to include Trivia Board type games Diablo and Counterstrike Tournaments Virtual Pet Adoption Center
Campus Activities--Web-Cast Web-cast events Showcase campus activities and events Campus Activities Board and Student Government meetings broadcast live Input and motions could be received via the internet Daily news broadcast---student run National, local and campus news Social events highlighted
Admissions Personal Video Messages Admissions Counselors will send admitted students a personal video message welcoming them to the University A day in the life of a student Prospective students can watch a 24 hour video of the typical student, from when they wake up to when they go to sleep
Admissions Constant flow of information Send prospective students on-line version of the campus paper weekly to keep them up to date On-line admissions process Potential students can track where they are in the process Check on acceptance
Counseling and Health Services Assessment (alcohol use, diet, depression and concern for friends, etc) Confidential Q&A, library of FAQ Daily Chat (with an anonymous option) with an M.D. Possible outsource to 24-hour healthcare agency in which students could discuss symptoms. Online support groups in private chat rooms.
Counseling and Health Services Ordering prescription refills, with automatic email reminders; links to online information of medications Scheduling appointments and filling in patient forms prior to arrival. Links to other online medical resources. Individualized health and wellness diaries maintained by students, including health and wellness links
Telnet College-where to go from here… Assess which issues are most relevant (and immediate) at Telnet. Assess current IT department, equipment, staff, vision, and budget. Re-design traditional programs to incorporate online technology. This will require extensive training of administrators and staff in these departments.
It all begins with a total institutional commitment… Im excited to get started… Are you?