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Chapter 24: Sexually Transmitted Diseases

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1 Chapter 24: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Key Terms: Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) Epidemic Chlamydia Nongonococcal Urethritis Gonorrhea Trichomoniasis Vaginitis

2 Terms, cont. Genital Warts Genital Herpes Syphilis Asymptomatic
HPV vaccine Human Immunodefiency Virus (HIV) Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

3 Media

4 “The Silent Epidemic” About 13 million new cases of STDs are reported each year in the U.S. Why is it called “The Silent Epidemic?” 13 Numerous cases go unreported because people are ashamed…..

5 STDs and Adolescents Two-thirds of all STD cases occur in adolescents and young adults. The CDC has noted that 1 in 4 sexually active teens will contract an STD before graduating from high school. Two-thirds 1 in 4

6 Myth or Fact??? You can get STDs only if you have lots of sexual partners. Myth…. Fact: You can get an STD from your first sexual experience.

7 Myth or Fact??? Some types of STDs are incurable and last a lifetime.
Myth: STDs can easily be cleared up with antibiotics.

8 Myth or Fact??? In some cases, especially early in the disease, no symptoms are present. Fact…. Myth: If you have an STD, you would have symptoms of the disease.

9 Myth or Fact??? Once the symptoms of the disease go away, the disease is cured. Myth… Fact: You can still have an STD, even if the symptoms go away.

10 Myth or Fact??? You can only have one type of STD at a time. Myth….
Fact: It is possible to have more than one kind of STD infection.

11 Myth or Fact??? Once infected with an STD, you cannot get it again.
Fact: No one can become immune to STDs. Anyone can be reinfected.

12 Myth or Fact??? No vaccine exists for STDs, except for Hepatitis B.
Fact: Vaccines exist for HPV and Hepatitis B

13 Myth or Fact??? Having a Pap test is one way a female can find out if she has an STD. Myth…. Fact: A Pap test detects cancer cells, not the presence of an STD.

14 STDs and Your Future Contracting an STD can dramatically change your future: 1.) STDs can cause sterility. 2.) Infants born to mothers with STDs can be infected at birth and suffer consequences such as blindness and deformities. 3.) Some STDs are incurable. 4.) Individuals with STDs are at a greater risk for cancer, and some STDs such as AIDS are fatal. Sterility Blindness and deformities Incurable Cancer and fatal

15 Female and Male Reproductive system

16 Chlamydia The CDC estimates that more than 2.8 million new cases of chlamydia infection occur each year. Chlamydia is a common cause of Nongonococcal Urethritis and, if untreated, can lead to PID (Pelvic Inflammatory Disease) in females.

17 Symptoms of Chlamydia Males: Females (not always obvious)
1.) Pain and burning during urination 2.) Unusual discharge Females (not always obvious) 1.) Pain in the pelvic region 2.) Painful urination 3.) Unusual discharge *** Can lead to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

18 Treatment of Chlamydia
Certain antibiotics can cure chlamydia.

19 Gonorrhea Symptoms (not always obvious)
Symptoms usually appear between three days and three weeks after sexual contact with an infected person. Males 1.) Whitish discharge from the penis 2.) Burning during urination Females 1.) Slight discharge from the vagina 3.) Abnormal menstruation 4.) Abdominal pain or tenderness

20 Treatment of Gonorrhea
Can be treated by antibiotics.

21 Trichomoniasis Trichomoniasis is caused by the single-celled protozoan parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis. The vagina is the most common site of infection in women, and the urethra (urine canal) is the most common site of infection in men. The parasite is sexually transmitted through penis-to-vagina intercourse or vulva-to-vulva (the genital area outside the vagina) contact with an infected partner. Women can acquire the disease from infected men or women, but men usually contract it only from infected women.

22 Trichomoniasis, cont. Symptoms Males Females 1.) Itching of the penis
2.) A clear discharge 3.) Pain during urination Females 1.) Burning and itching in the vagina 2.) Pain during urination 3.) Yellowish-green discharge

23 Treatment of Trichomoniasis
Can be cured with medicine prescribed by a physician. **Trichomoniasis can cause a secondary infection in females called vaginitis.

24 Genital Warts Caused by a virus called Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)
Once infected, a person has the virus for the rest of her or his life. Warts appear on the genitals one to three months after infection.

25 Treatment of Genital Warts
Doctor may remove warts, but they may reappear. Prescription skin medication ** This STD may cause cervical cancer in women.

26 Genital Herpes Caused by Herpes Simplex Type 2 Cannot be cured
Sores usually appear two to twenty days after contact with an infected person and may last as long as three weeks. Other symptoms include fever and burning during urination

27 Treatment of Genital Herpes
Breakouts may be caused by stress Medications are used to treat the symptoms. To avoid spreading herpes, infected persons should avoid sexual contact when blisters are present and right after they disappear.

28 Syphilis When left untreated, can damage vital organs, such as the heart, liver, kidneys, central nervous system including the brain. Syphilis develops in stages. Symptoms appear and then go away on their own. If treated early, the disease can be cured.

29 Stages of Syphilis 1.) Primary Stage 2.) Secondary Stage Chancre
Painless, reddish sore Appears 10 to 90 days after contact Lasts one to five weeks and will then go away 2.) Secondary Stage If not treated, appears one to six months after contact Highly contagious at this stage

30 Stages, cont. Non-itching rash on the chest, backs of the arms, and legs Fever Sore throat General sick feeling Without treatment, these symptoms will disappear, but the disease continues to develop.

31 Stages, cont. 3.) Latent Stage
Begins two or more years after infection All signs disappear, leading the individual to believe that he or she is cured. In this stage, the disease begins to attack the heart , blood vessels, and central nervous system. May relapse to the second stage and develop sores again.

32 Stages, cont. 4.) Neurosyphilis Stage
If left untreated, the disease moves into this stage within 10 to 30 years, and the heart, skin, brain, and spinal cord are affected. Syphilis in this stage can be treated, but not cured.

33 Treatment of Syphilis Blood tests determine if a person has syphilis
Penicillin is the main drug used in the treatment of syphilis Early treatment is crucial

34 Other STDs Chancroid Candidiasis Pubic lice Scabies Hepatitis B HIV

35 Responsibilities of Infected Individuals
Treatment Notify all people with whom he or she has had sexual contact. Educate future partners about the the STD, and encourage them to have medical checkups.

36 Conclusion STDs……. Educate yourself, and make good choices!

37 Questions??

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