Presentation on theme: "Classroom Assessment and Grading"— Presentation transcript:
1 Classroom Assessment and Grading CHAPTER 16Classroom Assessment and Grading
2 Learning Goals Discuss the classroom as an assessment context. Provide some guidelines for constructing traditional tests.Describe some types of alternative assessments.Construct a sound approach to grading.
3 Classroom Assessment The Classroom as an Assessment Context Assessment as an Integral Part of TeachingCurrentTrendsMaking AssessmentCompatible with Contemporary Views of Learning and MotivationEstablishingHigh-QualityAssessmentsCreating Clear, Appropriate Learning Targets
4 Assessment as an Integral Part of Teaching Pre-Instruction AssessmentFormative AssessmentSummative Assessment
5 Learning TargetsDefine what students should know and be able to do, andProvide criteria for judging whether students have attained the stated learning target.
6 Establishing High-Quality Assessments Validity Does the assessment measure what it is intended to measure?Reliability Does the assessment yield stable and dependable scores relatively free of measurement errors?Fairness Do all students have equal opportunity to demonstrate their knowledge and skill?
7 Current Trends in Classroom Assessment Include some performance-based methods of assessmentExamine higher-level cognitive skillsUse multiple assessment methodsUse more multiple-choice items to prepare students for taking high-stakes state-standards-based testsHave high performance standardsUse computers as part of assessment
9 Traditional TestsTraditional tests are typically paper-pencil tests in which students select from choices, calculate numbers, construct short responses, and write essays.Two main types:Selected-response itemsConstructed-response items
13 Classroom Assessment Alternative Assessments Trends in Alternative AssessmentPerformance AssessmentPortfolioAssessment
14 Alternative Assessments Authentic assessment means evaluatinga student’s knowledge or skill in a contextthat approximates the real world or real lifeas closely as possible.Authentic assessment includes dance, music, art, and physical education as well as papers, projects, experiments, and portfolios.
15 Performance Assessments are evaluated whenspecific criteria (behaviors)are performedby the student.
16 Guidelines for Performance Assessments Establishing a clear purposeIdentifying observable criteriaProviding an appropriate settingJudging or scoring the performance
17 Portfolio Assessments Portfolio assessment consists of evaluating a systematic and organized collection of a student’s work that demonstrates the student’s skills and accomplishments.Artifacts: Students’ papers and homework.Reproductions: Documentation of a student’s work outside the classroom.Attestations: Teachers’ or others’ documentation of a student’s work.Productions: Documents prepared especially for the portfolio.
18 Using Portfolios Effectively Establishing purposeGrowth portfolioBest-work portfolioInvolving students in selecting portfolio materialsReviewing with studentsSetting criteria for evaluationScoring and judging
19 Classroom Assessment Grading and Reporting Performance The Purposes of GradingSome Issues in GradingThe Components of a Grading SystemReporting Students’ Progress and Grades to Parents
20 Purposes of Grading Motivational: Students are motivated to achieve high grades and to fear low grades.Administrative: Helpdetermine class rank,graduation, and promotion.Informational: The graderepresents the teacher’ssummary judgment of student performance.Guidance: Help in appropriate course selection and identifying students with special needs.
21 Standards of Comparison Norm-Referenced GradingCriterion-Referenced GradingBased on comparison of student’s performance with classmatesReferred to as “grading on the curve”Grading scale determines what percentages of students get particular gradesBased on comparisons with predetermined standards or criteriaReferred to as “absolute grading”Grading is based on level of mastery
22 Grading and Reporting Performance The Report CardStandard method of reporting student progressLetter and numerical grades are typically used, some checklistsSome report affective characteristicsSome provide teacher’s summative commentsWritten Progress ReportReports can include student’s performance on tests, projects, reportsCan include comments on student motivation, cooperation, and behaviorSuggestions for parentsParent-Teacher ConferenceProvide an opportunity to give parents useful informationProvide an avenue to develop parent-teacher partnerships on the student’s behalf
23 Enter the Debate Should grades be abolished? YES NO During a slideshow, text may be written on the slides in the yes/no boxes, and then saved for later reference.
24 Crack the Case The Project What are the issues involved in this situation?What did Mr. Andrews do wrong?How should he have gone about developing his alternative assessments?How should he have developed his grading guide?What do you think of the practice of including an effort grade on students’ projects? Why?This case is on page 609 of the text.
25 Reflection & Observation How have teachers assessed your learning?How did different types of feedback affect your self-perceptions and motivation to learn?This slide accompanies the video segment, Portfolio Assessment, on the McGraw-Hill DVD Teaching Stories: A Video Collection for Educational Psychology.