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Open Access Professor Deborah C Saltman AM MB BS MD FRACGP FAFPHM Editorial Director (Medicine)

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Presentation on theme: "Open Access Professor Deborah C Saltman AM MB BS MD FRACGP FAFPHM Editorial Director (Medicine)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Open Access Professor Deborah C Saltman AM MB BS MD FRACGP FAFPHM Editorial Director (Medicine)

2 What is Open Access?

3 BioMed Central Open Access Charter All published peer-reviewed research articles in BioMed Central journals are –Universally, freely accessible through Internet –In readable format –Immediately deposited in an international Open Access repository eg PubMed Central Authors/copyright owners must irrevocably grant to anyone the right to use, reproduce or disseminate the research article in its entirety or in part in perpetuity provided that –No substantive errors are introduced –Authorship attribution is correct –Citation details are provided –Bibliographic details are unchanged

4 Open Access Publishing: Basics No subscription barriers Journal costs covered by –Article Processing Charges Typically paid by author's funder /institution and/or –Direct Institutional support of Journal

5 Why Open Access?

6 Traditional Scientific Publishing Researchers –Conduct research –Write up results –Submit papers to Journals Other researchers –Act as peer reviewers and editorial advisers Publishers sell access to that research back to scientific community

7 Limitations of this Model Contrary to the interests of: –Scientists doing research Access, especially across disciplines, and in low income countries, is limited –Funders who pay for it Often have no rights to access their own research articles –Society as a whole Public has almost no access

8 The UK National Health Service: an example

9 Accessibility of NHS-funded articles to public

10 Accessibility of NHS-funded articles within the NHS

11 BioMed Central Independant publisher of peer-reviewed open access research –Launched first open access journals in 2000 –Now publishing over 150 open access journals –Over 12,000 peer-reviewed open access articles published Costs covered by Article Processing Charge –Typically £750/$1300 or –Membership All research articles covered by Creative Commons licence – Allowing free re-use


13 BioMed Central Publishing All papers Peer-reviewed in the traditional way All papers are permanently archived in PubMed Central, INIST and other international archives Searchable and retrievable All included in PubMed, Scirus, Google, CrossRef, HINARI Some journals Indexed in MEDLINE, Biosis, CAS Tracked by ISI for citations 33 tracked 15 with impact factors

14 BioMed Central Journals 60 BMC series journals –run by an in-house editorial team –cover all areas of Biology and Medicine –e.g. BMC Genetics, BMC Immunology, BMC Cancer 70+ independant journals –run by external groups of scientists or societies –e.g. Malaria Journal, Respiratory Research, Retrovirology Other titles which publish subscription-only commissioned content in addition to OA research –Arthritis Research & Therapy, Genome Biology, Breast Cancer Research, Critical Care


16 Journals with Impact Factors BMC Bioinformatics impact factor: 5.42 Respiratory Research impact factor: 4.03 Arthritis Research & Therapy impact factor: 4.55 BMC Genomics impact factor: 3.25 Critical Care impact factor: 3.21 BMC Molecular Biology impact factor: 3.12 Breast Cancer Research impact factor: 2.98 BMC Cell Biology impact factor: 2.62 BMC Cancer impact factor: 2.29 BMC Infectious Diseases impact factor: 2.07 BMC Public Health impact factor: 1.55 BMC Health Services Research impact factor: 1.23 BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders impact factor: 1.00 BMC Genetics impact factor: 0.92 Trials impact factor: 1.70

17 Journals awaiting Impact Factors BMC Biotechnology impact factor due June 2007 BMC Evolutionary Biology impact factor due June 2006 BMC Gastroenterology impact factor due June 2006 BMC Medical Genetics impact factor due June 2008 BMC Microbiology impact factor due June 2007 BMC Neuroscience impact factor due June 2006 Journal of Translational Medicine impact factor due June 2008 BMC Plant Biology impact factor due June 2008 Retrovirology impact factor due June 2009 Malaria Journal impact factor due June 2006 Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology impact factor due June 2008 Genome Biology impact factor due June 2006 BMC Developmental Biology impact factor due June 2008 BMC Immunology impact factor due June 2008 BMC Neurology impact factor due June 2008 BMC Structural Biology impact factor due June 2008 Microbial Cell Factories impact factor due June 2008

18 Citation and Downloads Open access articles receive 50% more full-text accesses and PDF downloads than subscription-access articles. Kenneth R. Fulton, PNAS Publisher Independant study by CIBER found Senior authors believe downloads to be more credible measure of the usefulness of research then traditional citations.

19 3.5 million page views a month


21 Metrics: Trend in Submissions

22 Most Viewed Articles

23 Visibility on BioMed Central 500,000 registrants 450,000 unique users per month 280,000+ BioMed Central email update recipients 5 million page views per month 2 million article downloads per month Average article downloaded >1100 times in first 3 months

24 Growth in Article Accesses



27 Authors

28 Authors Embracing OA Research community is now much aware of open access Up 10 percentage points from 2004 Fall in authors knowing nothing at all about open access (down 25 percentage points) Authors publishing in OA up from 11% (2004) to 29% (2005) Independant study by CIBER:

29 What do Authors like about BioMed Central? Speed with which article is included in PubMed/other abstracting/indexing services Final appearance of article Helpfulness of editorial staff Speed of online manuscript submission system Over 90% of authors would recommend to a colleague

30 Quotes from Author Survey You have the best online submission system I have used until now. BMC Bioinformatics author, Germany The submission process is the simplest to navigate through. Congratulations! BMC Pharmacology author, Canada The submission process is extremely user friendly and excellent. Mohamed Mitwally, USA Submission on line was excellent and easy to do. Congratulations on getting this right. Good work! Arthritis Research & Therapy author, New Zealand I hugely appreciate the ability to use powerpoint files for submission! Generally an extremely easy system to use. BMC Cancer author, UK I could not be more pleased with the process. I look forward to publishing in open access journals in the future. BMC Evolutionary Biology author, USA I am very pleased with the ease of submission. I love that the copyright remains in my hands so that I can use my figures etc as I wish. Journal of Translational Medicine author, Germany


32 Making it Pay: the Economics of Open Access Publishing

33 Macro-economics Open access publishing involves no new costs From the perspective of the research community as a whole, switching to an Open Access publishing model is affordable and desirable, as it –Costs no more than the current model –Delivers more (universal access and reuse)

34 Micro-economics Library budgets already stretched, paying the costs of the current publishing model through subscriptions Costs of traditional system are mostly invisible to authors, whereas article processing charges are an obstacle for authors During a transitional period, moves towards open access may involve additional costs

35 Paying for Open Access: examples

36 Who Pays the Cost of Publication? Some BioMed Central journals cover the cost of publication themselves –Beilstein Journal of Organic ChemistryBeilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry –Chinese MedicineChinese Medicine –Chiropractic & OsteopathyChiropractic & Osteopathy For other BioMed Central journals, payment typically comes from the authors funder or institution

37 Government EC Report calls for change in science publishing –Set up EU policy mandating EC-funded research to be made open access –Aim at a level playing field –Allocate money to libraries for subscription journals and for author pays journals /414 House of Commons(UK) Inquiry into Scientific Publishing –UK research funding bodies mandate free access to all their research findings –Research Councils each establish a fund to which their funded researchers can apply should they wish to publish their articles using the author-pays model ctech/399/39902.htm

38 Institutional Membership Two basic models for institutions –Full membership Institution agrees to pay for every article published by one of their authors, at a discounted rate –Supporters' membership Institution pays a flat rate, and in return, authors get a discount, but must still organize payment of their own APCs

39 Funding Agencies

40 Funding Agencies (Cont)

41 Institutional membership CalTech Cancer Research UK Columbia University Cornell University University of California Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Harvard University INSERM Imperial College Institut Pasteur John Innes Centre Johns Hopkins University Kyoto University Max Planck Institutes Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center More than 400 institutions are members of BioMed Central, including, to name just a few: MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology National Institutes of Health National Institute for Medical Research NHS England Princeton University Rockefeller University TIGR TSRI Tufts University Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute University of Wisconsin World Health Organization Yale University

42 Societies Launching open access journals with BioMed Central: Geochemical Transactions - Geochemistry Division of the American Chemical Society Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica - Veterinary Associations of the Nordic Countries Chiropractic & Osteopathy - Chiropractic & Osteopathic College of Australasia Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases - subunit of INSERM Chinese Medicine - International Society of Chinese Medicine Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research - Chinese Speaking Orthopaedic Society BioPsychoSocial Medicine - Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Medicine

43 Funders that Explicitly Allow APCs to be Paid from Grants Canadian Institutes of Health Research Canadian Institutes of Health Research (Canada) Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (France) Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientificasConsejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (Spain) Consiglio Nazionale delle RicercheConsiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy) Danmarks GrundforskningsfondDanmarks Grundforskningsfond (Denmark) Deutsche ForschungsgemeinschaftDeutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Germany) Fondazione TelethonFondazione Telethon (Italy) Fonds zur Forderung der wissenschaftlichen ForschungFonds zur Forderung der wissenschaftlichen Forschung (Austria) Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (Belgium) Health Research BoardHealth Research Board (Ireland) Howard Hughes Medical InstituteHoward Hughes Medical Institute (US) International Human Frontier Science Program OrganizationInternational Human Frontier Science Program Organization (International) Israel Science FoundationIsrael Science Foundation (Israel) National Health ServiceNational Health Service (UK) National Institutes of HealthNational Institutes of Health (US) National Science FoundationNational Science Foundation (US) Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (Netherlands) Rockefeller FoundationRockefeller Foundation (US) South African Medical Research CouncilSouth African Medical Research Council (South Africa) Suomen AkatemiaSuomen Akatemia (Finland) Swiss National Science Foundation Swiss National Science Foundation (Switzerland) VetenskapsrådetVetenskapsrådet (Sweden) Wellcome TrustWellcome Trust (UK)

44 Traditional Publishers

45 BioMed Central's Article Processing Charges

46 Open Access and Indexing

47 Indexing and Citation Tracking Services Find research on a given topic Identify the most important research on a given topic Follow citations backward and forward in time Identify the best journals (as a shortcut/filter)

48 Strengths and Weaknesses of ISI Web of Science Strengths Well established Broad coverage Exposes which articles are most cited Impact factors proxy for relative importance of journals Weaknesses Expensive Incomplete coverage Citation takes 2 or 3 years for ISI to generate an impact factor months/years, not immediate Journal-level citation information conceals within journal problems

49 Other Citation Tracking Systems Services –Scopus –Google Scholar –Citebase –Crossref Archives –PubMed Central –HighWire Publishers –Science Direct –BioMed Central

50 Other Citation Tracking Systems All allow following of 'cited by' links Some allow searching to find most cited research None generate journal metrics










60 Google scholar is better than you might expect

61 Citation Tracking Summary Citation tracking used to be –A mammoth task –Undertaken at great expense Now –It comes for free as a result of analysing the XML –Produced by all major publishers

62 Access-based Metrics



65 Opinion-based Metrics

66 Faculty of 1000

67 CiteULike

68 Postgenomic

69 Open Access Professor Deborah C Saltman AM MB BS MD FRACGP FAFPHM Editorial Director (Medicine)

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