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Open Access and BioMed Central Matt Hodgkinson Senior Editor.

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1 Open Access and BioMed Central Matt Hodgkinson Senior Editor

2 Open Access is... Free and immediate online access to peer reviewed research... without any barriers (other than connecting to the Internet) Permanent archiving of articles in international repositories Authors retain copyright, and agree that anyone is free – to copy, distribute, and display the work – to make derivative works – to make commercial use of the work Provided that the original authors are given credit

3 Traditional Scientific Publishing Researchers –Conduct research –Write up results –Submit papers to journals Other researchers –Act as peer reviewers and editorial advisers Publishers sell access to that research back to the research community

4 Limitations of this Model Access to the latest research is limited for: –Scientists and medics who conduct research Especially across disciplines in low income countries at smaller institutions or universities students working from home or remotely –Funding bodies - who often have no access to articles reporting research they paid for –Society as a whole - p ublic has little access

5 Public access to NHS-funded research

6 Access to NHS-funded articles within the NHS

7 Open Access Publishing No subscription barriers Journal costs can be covered by – Article Processing Charges Typically paid by authors' funding body or institution –Direct institutional or society support of journals –Grants –Advertising

8 BioMed Central Publisher of peer-reviewed open access research –Launched first open access journals in 2000 –Now publishing over 170 open access journals –Over 15,000 peer-reviewed open access articles published –Journals are online only All research articles covered by Creative Commons license – Allowing free re-use with no further permission (with attribution) Costs covered by Article Processing Charge –Typically £750-£850 / $1500-$1700 –Institutional membership 300 member institutions in 31 countries –Full waiver for authors from small economy, low income countries

9 BioMed Central Publishing All journals Peer-reviewed Articles are permanently archived in PubMed Central, INIST and other international repositories Searchable and retrievable All included in PubMed, Scirus, Google Scholar, CrossRef, HINARI Many journals Indexed in MEDLINE, Biosis, CAS, Scopus Tracked by ISI for Impact Factors 25 journals have Impact Factors 47 journals currently tracked and will receive Impact Factors over the next 3 years

10 BioMed Central Journals 61 BMC-series journals –Run by an in-house editorial team –Cover most areas of Biology and Medicine –40 medical journals including BMC Medicine, BMC Health Services Research, BMC Public Health, BMC Nursing, BMC Family Practice 100 independent journals –Run by external groups of scientists or societies e.g. Journal of Medical Case Reports, Respiratory Research, Implementation Science 4 journals publish open access research articles alongside subscription-only commissioned content Arthritis Research & Therapy, Breast Cancer Research, Critical Care, Genome Biology

11 How is BioMed Central different? Journals may be non-traditional in their approach: –The BMC-series –Biology Direct Journals may be non-traditional in their content: –Journal of Medical Case Reports

12 Trends in Submissions

13 Authors Embrace Open Access Research community is now much more aware of open access Awareness up 10 percentage points from 2004 Fall in authors knowing nothing at all about open access (down 25 percentage points) Authors publishing in open access journals up from 11% (2004) to 29% (2005) Independent study:

14 Citations and Downloads Senior authors believe downloads to be a more credible measure of the usefulness of research than traditional citations Open access articles receive 50% more full-text accesses and PDF downloads than subscription-access articles Kenneth R. Fulton, PNAS Publisher

15 Growth in Article Accesses

16 Visibility on BioMed Central 500,000 registrants 450,000 unique users per month 300,000 BioMed Central email update recipients 5 million page views per month 2+ million article downloads per month Average article downloaded >1100 times in first 3 months


18 Who Supports Open Access?

19 Government House of Commons (UK) Inquiry into Scientific Publishing Recommended that UK funding bodies mandate free access to all their research findings EU commission –Funding to pay for article processing charges –Support for open access repositories US Federal Research Public Access Act Agencies with budgets of more than $100 million should ensure that articles they fund are available online within 6 months of publication Australian Government Department of Education, Science, and Training There are new opportunities and new models for scholarly communication... Open access is, perhaps, the most important

20 Institutional Membership Two basic models for institutions –Full membership Institution agrees to pay the article processing charge for every article published by one of their authors, at a discounted rate –Supporter membership Institution pays a flat rate, and in return authors get a discount, and organize payment of the remaining APC

21 Institutional Members Albertay Dundee University University of Birmingham University of Cambridge University of Dundee University of Edinburgh Glasgow University University of Hertfordshire Higher Education Authority, Ireland Imperial College London IRIS (The Consortium of Irish University and Research Libraries) Kings College London University of Leeds University of Limerick Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology Around 300 institutions worldwide are members of BioMed Central University of Manchester National University of Ireland –Maynooth and Galway NHS England Newcastle University University of Nottingham University of Oxford Science Foundation Ireland University of St. Andrews Trinity College University College Cork University College Dublin University of Ulster Wellcome Genome Campus Wellcome Trust World Health Organization

22 Funders that Explicitly Allow APCs to be Paid from Grants Academy of Finland (Finland) BIOTEC (Thailand) California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (US) Canadian Institutes of Health Research (Canada) Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (France) Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (Spain) Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy) Danmarks Grundforskningsfond (Denmark) Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Germany) FAPESP (Brazil) Fondazione Telethon (Italy) Fonds zur Forderung der wissenschaftlichen Forschung (Austria) Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (Belgium) Health Research Board (Ireland) Howard Hughes Medical Institute (US) Indian Council of Medical Research (India) INSERM (France) International Human Frontier Science Program Organization (International) Israel Science Foundation (Israel) Max Planck Society (Germany) Medical Research Council (UK) National Health Service (UK) National Institutes of Health (US) National Science Foundation (US) Rockefeller Foundation (US) South African Medical Research Council (South Africa) Suomen Akatemia (Finland) Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (Sweden) Swedish Research Council (Sweden) Swiss National Science Foundation (Switzerland) Wellcome Trust (UK)

23 Summary Open access online publishing is viable and sustainable Maximizes research visibility Optimizes both scientific progress and clinical practice Benefits society as a whole

24 Open Access is… a win-win situation: high quality peer reviewed research available to everyone free of charge within a sustainable on-line market - plus savings of as much as 30 per cent" Mark Wolpert, Wellcome Trust Matt Hodgkinson Senior Editor BioMed Central

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