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Introduction to Java 2 Programming Lecture 5 Quick Recap; Error-handling.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Java 2 Programming Lecture 5 Quick Recap; Error-handling."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Java 2 Programming Lecture 5 Quick Recap; Error-handling

2 Overview Quick Recap –Were half way through! –Review some of the material weve already covered –Walk through some of the exercises Java Error Handling –Handling and creating Exceptions

3 The CLASSPATH The CLASSPATH is –How Java finds compiled classes –A system property –Contains directories and/or jar files –Is a common source of frustration! Classify Java tools into three groups: –File based –CLASSPATH based –And mixed mode (I.e. used both)

4 The CLASSPATH File based tools (e.g. javadoc, jar) –Accept parameters referring to files. –Read the directory structure to find related files javadoc c:\intro2java\src\intro2java\*.java –Result in file-based errors CLASSPATH based tools (e.g. java, javap) –Refer to classes and not files –Ignore the file-system, except for those directories mentioned in the CLASSPATH java intro2java.Person –Result in exceptions or errors, e.g. ClassNotFoundException; NoClassDefFoundErrors

5 The CLASSPATH Mixed mode tools (e.g. javac) –Accept parameters referring to files –Read the CLASSPATH to find related classes javac c:\intro2java\src\intro2java\*.java –Results in file errors (relating to parameters), and cannot resolve symbol errors (relating to missing classes)

6 CLASSPATH Tips Always add the current working directory to the CLASSPATH SET CLASSPATH=%CLASSPATH%;. Keep classes and source separate (e.g. bin and src directories) Use a global classes directory, e.g. c:\classes –Add this to the CLASSPATH –Always compile into that directory SET CLASSPATH=%CLASSPATH%;c:\classes javac –d c:\classes *.java

7 Constructors Why do we use them? –Give us chance to ensure our objects are properly initialised –Can supply default values to member variables –Can accept parameters to allow an object to be customised –Can validate this data to ensure that the object is created correctly. A class always has at least one constructor –…even if you dont define it, the compiler will –This is the default constructor

8 Constructors public class EmailAddress { public EmailAddress(String address) { if (address.indexOf(@) == -1) { //not a valid address, signal an error? } //must be valid… } //methods }

9 Constructors When do they get called? –When we use the new keyword –Cannot be called explicitly like other methods –But one constructor can refer to another, using the super keyword EmailAddress myAddress = new EmailAddress(; Constructors and inheritance –An object must ensure that its parent is properly initialised, by calling one of its constructors –Example…

10 Constructors public class Parent { private String msg; public Parent(String message) { msg = message; } public class Child { public Child() { super("Parent message"); }

11 Inheritance What happens when we call a method? –The JVM tries to find the implementation of that method and execute the code –Starts searching with the objects class, then works upward to its parent…its parents parent…etc, etc. When do we override a method? –When we want to change the implementation, either completely or partially To completely change the implementation, just define a new version To partially change the implementation use the super keyword to refer to the parent implementation

12 Inheritance – Using Super In an E-Commerce system we might have a class responsible for calculating prices e.g: public class Pricer { public float calculatePrice(Product p) { //implementation details irrelevant for example } The Product parameter lets the Pricer calculate the price

13 Inheritance – Using Super Assume we want to extend this functionality so that the calculation also includes tax (i.e. adding on VAT). US purchases don't include tax, but UK ones do, so we can't just rewrite the original method. Instead we create a subclass, called UKPricer that does the extra work. public class UKPricer extends Pricer { public float calculatePrice(Product p) { //this implementation will also add on VAT… }

14 Inheritance – Using Super Ideally we want to reuse the code in the base class, as all we need to do is add on the extra 17.5% to the final price. We can do better than copy-and-paste using super… public class UKPricer extends Pricer { public float calculatePrice(Product p) { //call the superclass method float withoutTax = super.calculatePrice(p); float tax = withoutTax * 17.5 / 100; return withoutTax + tax; }

15 Controlling Inheritance Inheritance can be restricted using the final keyword –Applies to both methods and classes –A final class cannot be extended –A final method cannot be overridden Inheritance can be forced by using the abstract keyword –Again applies to both methods and classes –An abstract class must be extended, cannot be used to create objects –An abstract method must be overrided by a sub-class

16 Encapsulation Encapulation is information hiding, but what to hide? –Everything that isnt part of the interface (contract) of an object –This means all member variables Encapulation is enforced in Java by the visibility modifiers –Public, protected, private, and package access –Modifiers can be applied to variables, methods and classes

17 Visibility Modifiers ModifierClassSubclassPackageWorld PrivateX ProtectedXXX PublicXXXX PackageXX

18 Passing Parameters Java has two ways of passing parameters –Pass by Reference –Pass by Value Pass by Value applies to primitive types (int, float, etc) Pass by Reference applies to objects and arrays

19 Passing Parameters public class PassByValueTest { public static void add(int x) { x++; } public static void main(String[] args) { int x = 0; System.out.println(x); add(x); System.out.println(x); }

20 Passing Parameters public class PassByReferenceTest { public static void reverse(StringBuffer buffer) { buffer.reverse(); } public static void main(String[] args) { StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer(Hello); System.out.println(buffer); reverse(buffer); System.out.println(buffer); }

21 Upcasting Inheritance describes an isA relationship –E.g. A MotorVehicle isA type of Vehicle Parent and child objects share a base type –So children can be treated as if they were an instance of the parent –This is known as upcasting

22 Upcasting The type of the object determines its possible behaviours –Because we define them in the class The object reference limits the behaviours we can invoke to those defined by the type of the reference –If an child class is upcast we can only invoke the base class methods –Weve forgotten the real type of the object

23 Upcasting Example 1 Parent and Child

24 Upcasting Example 2 PersonViewer, need to change references Key to understanding this is that the compiler doesnt determine the method to call at compile time, but at runtime – dynamic binding. This is Polymorphism

25 Method Overloading Already introduced overriding Overloading is defining methods with the same name, but different parameters Enhanced Person Viewer example

26 Error Handling in Java Java uses Exceptions to handle errors –Events that happen whilst running a program that disrupts the normal flow of instructions Exceptions can range in severity –Hardware or memory problems –Program errors; Bugs, etc. Exceptions are objects –Carry message, and state about what the program was doing when the problem was encounter –Because Exceptions are objects, you can subclass them to create your own

27 Exceptions Exceptions are handled by separate blocks of code (exception handlers) –Separates error handling from normal code –Better than return codes JVM is responsible for finding an error handler for each exception –Walks backwards through the call stack –If it cant find one, then the JVM will exit

28 Exceptions – Terminology Throwing an exception –Creating an Exception object, and asking the JVM to deal with it Catching an exception –Dealing with the Exception object. –Exception handlers catch exceptions Stack Trace –Debug information about the application state (call stack) when Exception was generated.

29 Exceptions – Syntax Throwing an Exception Create a new Exception object (actually one of its subclasses) Use the throw keyword to ask Java to deal with it throw new Exception(error message);

30 Exceptions – Syntax Identifying methods that throw exceptions Added a throws keyword to the method definition public void readFile throws IOException, FileNotFoundException { //..code... } A method must list all exceptions that are thrown in the method body –Otherwise encounter compilation errors

31 Exceptions – Syntax Throwing an Exception Create a new Exception object (actually one of its subclasses) Use the throw keyword to ask Java to deal with it throw new Exception(error message);

32 Exceptions – Syntax Handling exceptions Use a try..catch block try { readFile(); } catch (FileNotFoundException fe) { //handler for file not found } catch (IOException ioe) { //handler for general I/O exceptions }

33 Exceptions – Syntax Alternatively use a try..catch..finally block The finally clause is always executed and is used for critical clean-up try { readFile(); } catch (IOException ioe) { //handler for general I/O exceptions } finally { //ALWAYS run closeFile(); }

34 Exceptions – Syntax Viewing the stack trace Exception.printStackTrace(); Example

35 Exceptions – Syntax java.lang.Exception: Error message at intro2java.GenerateStackTrace.methodThree(GenerateSta at intro2java.GenerateStackTrace.methodTwo(GenerateStack at intro2java.GenerateStackTrace.methodOne(GenerateStack at intro2java.GenerateStackTrace.main(

36 Exceptions – Syntax Defining new types of Exceptions is easy, just sub-class an existing one. public MyException extends Exception { public MyException() { … } public MyException(String msg) { super(msg); } }

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