Presentation on theme: "Following activities were carried out—"— Presentation transcript:
1 Observation of mental health week at Jagjivan Ram Hospital Western Rly Mumbai Central Following activities were carried out—1 – Public awareness lecture by Dr Charles Pinto, Dr Malay Dave and Dr J P Rawat on the importance of psychological issues in chronic medical illnesses 7 and 8th October 20102 – poster exhibition on the theme of mental health week th to 10th October 20103- stress management programmed for the medical personnel on 9th October 2010
2 Mental Health Day Theme (WFMH) MENTAL HEALTH AND CHRONIC PHYSICAL ILLNESSESTHE NEED FOR CONTINUED AND INTEGRATED CARE
3 10 Strategies to manage the Psychological Impact of Chronic Illness NutritionExerciseSpiritualHealth careCommunicationEducationPace yourselfHumourRelationshipsSTRESS Management
10 INTRODUCTION What is stress? Who is affected –living , age ? Why they are affected? – Role of Good parenting,Temperament > Personality and develops good Coping mechanismIs it preventable?Whether it is manageable?
11 I HATE YOUWHAT IS STRESS ?Stress is the “wear and tear” our minds and bodies experience as we attempt to cope with our continually changing environment
12 HELP ME!WHAT IS STRESS ?Stress is the reaction people have to excessive pressures or other types of demand placed upon them. It arises when they worry that they can’t cope.
13 Stress is not in our environment… …it is what we perceive in our mind and body.
14 Stress occurs when the pressure is greater than the resource DEFINITIONS = P > RStress occurs when the pressure is greater than the resource
15 DEFINITION Internal state which can be caused by: Physical demand on the body:ExerciseDiseaseEnvironmental factors:Extremes of temperatures:Natural calamitiesSocial situationsWhen these are evaluated as potentially harmful, uncontrollableor exceeding our resources for coping.
16 STRESSORS STRESS DISTRESS Varies from person to person.Some stressors are common to all:Infection.Injuries.Dangerous events.Actual threat to self-esteem.
17 StagesDurationOptimum out comeUnfavorable ratio1. Basic Trust Vs Basic mistrustUpto 1 yr.ADMO 25yearsHopeDepression, 2952. Autonomy Vs shame & doubt1-3 yrs.ADMOSelf controlOCD, delinquent behavior3. Initiative Vs Guilt3-5 yrs.ADMO DMOSense of purposeGAD, phobia4. Industry Vs Inferiority6-11 yrs.DMO, SrDMO,Sense of competence & pleasure in workInferiority5. Identity Vs role confusion11-20 yrs.JAGSense of consistency295, conduct disorder6. Intimacy Vs isolation21-40 yrs.SAGLoving relationshipSchizoid7. Generativity Vs stagnation40-65 yrs.CMDProductivity & creativity, CAREDepression8. Ego Identity Vs despair65 yrs.DGRHSUses WisdomPsychosomatic illness, hypo chondriasis
18 FOR ATTENDING THE TOP POSTS - NEEDS IN THE HIERARACHY ARE : 1. Physiological needs2. Safety needs3. Belonging & love needs4. Esteem needs5. Self actualization
19 PARENTING: 1. Authoritative and caring parents 1. Authoritative and caring parents a) Firm about rules & expected high level of maturity& achievements.b) Nurtuant and responsive to their childrenResult: Energetic, friendly, curious & self –reliant 2. Permissive parents: Little self reliance, poor self controlResult: Impulsive and aggressive 3. Highly controlling authoritarian: HITLERResult: Apprehensive, withdrawn, unhappy, distrustfulPARENTING:
21 STRESS RATING SCALE` Life event Death of life partner Major injury/illnessMarriageBeing fired at workArgument with spouseMajor change in work responsbility-prm/dem/trfTrouble with bossMajor change in living conditionsDebt for small purposesMajor change in sleeping habitsAdolescent6950413826352818Adult10052472923251716Elderly7365624540394836
22 STRESS RATING SCALE` Life event Major change in health of fly. memb PregnancyGaining a new family memberDeath of close friendSon/daughter leaving homeMajor change in eating habitVacationsMinor violation of lawOutstanding personal achievementAdolescent444543463418191231Adult4039372915131128Elderly5947365230
23 GRADES OF STRESSBy adding the life change units, a life crisis score can be obtained for that yearMILD: life change unitsMODERATE: “MAJOR: > “
24 The Stress Response Dr. Hans Selye Dr. Walter Cannon 1930’s ‘ Flight or Fight Response’
25 How body reacts with stress psycho physiologically Alarm responseAdaptationExhaustion
26 ALARM RESPONSEThis is the “ Fight or Flight” response that prepares the body for immediate action.
27 ADAPTATION PHASEIf the source persists, the body prepares for long-term protection, secreting hormones to increase blood sugar levels.This phase is common and not necessarily harmful, but must include periods of relaxation and rest to counterbalance the stress response.Fatigue, concentration lapses, irritability and lethargy result as the stress turns negative.
28 EXHAUSTIONIn chronic stress situations, sufferers enter the exhaustion phase: - emotional, physical and mental resources suffer heavily,the body experiences ‘ adrenal exhaustion’ leading to decreased stress tolerance, progressive mental and physical exhaustion, illness and collapse.
42 NEGATIVE STRESSIt is a contributory factor in minor conditions, such as headaches, digestive problems, skin complaints, insomnia and ulcers.Excessive, prolonged and unrelieved stress can have a harmful effect on mental, physical and spiritual health.
43 POSITIVE STRESSStress can also have a positive effect, spurring motivation and awareness, providing the stimulation to cope with challenging situations.Stress also provides the sense of urgency and alertness needed for survival when confronting threatening situations.
44 THE INDIVIDUALEveryone is different, with unique perceptions of, and reactions to events.There is no single level of stress that is optimal for all people.Some are more sensitive owing to experiences in childhood, the influence of teachers, parents and religion etc.
45 Self Perception Most of the stress we experience is self-generated. How we perceive life - whether an event makes us feel threatened or stimulated, encouraged or discouraged, happy or sad - depends to a large extent on how we perceive ourselves.
46 IntrospectionSelf-generated stress is something of a paradox, because so many people think of external causes when they are upset.Recognising that we create most of our own upsets is an important first step towards coping with them.
47 SYMPTOMS OF STRESSPhysical symptomsMental symptomsBehavioural symptomsEmotional symptoms
48 PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS Sleep pattern changes Fatigue Digestion changes Loss of sexual driveHeadachesAches and painsInfectionsIndigestionDizzinessFaintingSweating & tremblingTingling hands & feetBreathlessnessPalpitationsMissed heartbeats
49 MENTAL SYMPTOMSLack of concentrationMemory lapsesDifficulty in making decisionsConfusionDisorientationPanic attacks
50 BEHAVIOURAL SYMPTOMS Appetite changes - too much or too little Eating disorders - anorexia, bulimiaIncreased intake of alcohol & other drugsIncreased smokingRestlessnessFidgetingNail bitingHypochondria
51 EMOTIONAL SYMPTOMSBouts of depressionImpatienceFits of rageTearfulnessDeterioration of personal hygiene and appearance
52 STRESS RELATED ILLNESSES Stress is not the same as ill-health, but has been related to such illnesses as;Cardiovascular diseaseImmune system diseaseAsthmaDiabetes
53 STRESS RELATED ILLNESSES Digestive disordersUlcersSkin complaints - psoriasisHeadaches and migrainesPre-menstrual syndromeDepression
54 Stressors: DISTRESS CYCLE Immediate effect : Long term effect: Overall cost:ChemicalEmotionalSocialCommunityFamilyWorkDecisionPlanPhobicStress overloadingBehavioralPhysiologicalEmotionalCognitiveOvereatingalcohol intakeSmokingmuscle tension, HR, BPAnger, anxiety, DepressionConcern tractionObesity, alcoholismHT, IHD, DM, migraineanxiety dep phobia, personalitySleep, memory, obsessive.DecreasedproductivityEnjoyment& intimacy
56 ABC STRATEGYA = AWARENESSWhat causes you stress?How do you react?
57 ABC STRATEGY B = BALANCE There is a fine line between positive / negative stressHow much can you cope with before it becomes negative ?
58 ABC STRATEGY C = CONTROL What can you do to help yourself combat the negative effects of stress ?
59 Stress Management Techniques Change your thinkingChange your behaviourChange your lifestyle
60 Change your ThinkingRe-framingPositive thinking
61 Re-framingRe-framing is a technique to change the way you look at things in order to feel better about them.There are many ways to interpret the same situation so pick the one you like.Re-framing does not change the external reality, but helps you view things in a different light and less stressfully.
62 Positive Thinking Forget powerlessness, dejection, despair, failure Stress leaves us vulnerable to negative suggestion so focus on positives;Focus on your strengthsLearn from the stress you are underLook for opportunitiesSeek out the positive - make a change.
63 Change your Behaviour Be assertive Get organised Ventilation Humour Diversion
64 Being AssertiveBeing assertive involves standing up for your personal rights andexpressing your thoughts, feelings and beliefsdirectly, honestly and spontaneously in ways that don’t infringe the rights of others.
65 Get OrganisedPoor organisation is one of the most common causes of stress.Structured approaches offer security against ‘out of the blue’ problems.Prioritising objectives, duties and activities makes them manageable and achievable.Don’t overload your mind.Organisation will help avoid personal and professional chaos.
66 What would you LIKE to do Learn to drop unimportant activities Time ManagementMake a listWhat MUST be doneWhat SHOULD be doneWhat would you LIKE to doCut out time wastingLearn to drop unimportant activitiesSay no or delegate
67 Don’t waste time making excuses for not doing something Time ManagementPlan your daySet achievable goalsDon’t waste time making excuses for not doing something
68 ‘A problem shared is a problem halved’ Ventilation‘A problem shared is a problem halved’Develop a support network through friends or colleagues to talk with. It’s not always events that are stressful but how we perceive them.Writing a diary or notes may help release feelings but do not re-read what has been written.
69 Humour Good stress - reducer Applies at home and work Relieves muscular tensionImproves breathingPumps endorphins into the bloodstream - the body’s natural painkillers
70 Diversion Take time out Get away from things that bother you Calm down Think logically
72 Avoid Caffeine (Stimulant) DietHealthy eating habitsAvoid Caffeine (Stimulant)Avoid Sugar and SaltAvoid Fast FoodsRegular Meals
73 Avoid or Moderate your consumption Smoking and AlcoholAvoid or Moderate your consumptionNo to DRUGS
74 Benefits of ExerciseUses up excess energy released by the ‘Fight or Flight’ reaction.Improves blood circulationLowers blood pressureClears the mind of worrying thoughtsImproves self imageMakes you feel better about yourselfIncreases social contact
75 Sleep Good stress reducer Difficult to cope when tired Wake refreshed after night’s sleepPlenty of daytime energy
76 Leisure Interest Gives you a ‘break’ from stresses Provides outlet for reliefProvides social contact
79 Spirituality Yoga beneficial Meditation Useful Prayers and Reading Holy Books helps in changing mindset and attitudeInner Healing and self Awareness decreases stressFaith , beliefs not Rituals are vital
81 CONCLUSION Prevention is better than cure. For preventing the mental illness there is no vaccine like polio,DPT Etc.Identify the stressors & develop good coping mechanism so that stress can be managed before it kills you.Perception – Analysis – Action
82 THOUGHT FOR THE DAY Never blame anyone in your life because - good people give happinessbad people give experienceworst people give you a lessonand best people give you memories.
83 FOR MAKING THIS MENTAL HEALTH WEEK SUCESSFUL SPECIAL THANKS TO -Dr Charles PintoDr Malay DaveDr Ravi KamathStaff of JRHFOR MAKING THIS MENTAL HEALTH WEEK SUCESSFUL