Synthesis (combination) Medicine Flavorings Plastics High energy fuels
- - - - Acetic acid splits into acetate (C 2 H 3 O 2 ) - and H + H 3 C OH O O H H C H C O H
C O || CH 3 -CH 2 -CH 2 -OH + CH 3 C-OH H 2 O + CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 -O-CCH 3 OH O O || H 2 O + HO O || + H H H C H C H O H H C H O H H C H C O H H H H H C H O H C H O C H H H C O H H Propyl alcohol + acetic acid (vinegar)
OH + HO O || Octanol (or gasoline>alcohol) +acetic acid water + Octyl acetate (orange flavor) Benzyl alcohol (globs in lava lamps) + acetic acid water + Benzyl acetate OH HO O || + H 2 O + O O || OH HO O || + Isopentenyl alcohol + acetic acid water + Isopentenyl acetate (Juicy-Fruit) H 2 O + O O || O
OH HO O || + Ethanol (liquor) + butyric acid (rancid butter) water + Ethyl butyrate (Apple flavor) OH O || HO Amyl alcohol (oil of potato spirit) + salicylic acid (wart remover) water +Amyl salicylate + O O || O H 2 O +
AB A + B (NH 4 ) 2 Cr 2 O 7 N 2 + 4H 2 O + Cr 2 O 3
Single replacement Design of batteries A + BC B + AC 3Zn + 2Cu 3 PO 4 6Cu + Zn 3 (PO 4 ) 2
Each potato generates about 0.5 volts and 0.2 milliamps. The entire 500 lb battery generated around 5 volts and 4 milliamps.
Single replacement A + BC B + AC Zn + FeCl 2 Fe + ZnCl 2 Sacrificial corrosion
These corrosion products occupy from 2 to 14 times the volume of the original steel, creating an expansive force that is sufficient to cause the concrete to crack. Zinc corrodes so iron or aluminum will not corrode. Protects all metals below it
Any time you have two different metals that are physically or electrically connected and immersed in seawater, they become a battery. Some amount of current flows between the two metals. The electrons that make up that current are supplied by one of the metals giving up bits of itself-in the form of metal ions-to the seawater. This is called galvanic corrosion and, left unchecked, it quickly destroys underwater metals. The most common casualty of galvanic corrosion is a bronze or aluminum propeller on a stainless steel shaft, but metal struts, rudders, rudder fittings, outboards, and stern drives are also at risk. The way we counteract galvanic corrosion is to add a third metal into the circuit, one that is quicker than the other two to give up its electrons. This piece of metal is called a sacrificial anode, and most often it is zinc. In fact, most boaters refer to sacrificial anodes simply as zincs. It would be hard to overstate the importance of maintaining the zinc anodes on your boat. When a zinc is gone, the metal component it was installed to protect begins to dissolve-guaranteed.
Corrosion products commonly observed when concrete cores containing corroding rebar were broken open were ferrous hydroxide (Fe(OH) 2 ), hydrated ferrous chloride (FeC1 2 H2O), and black ferrous oxide (Fe 3 0 4 ).The exact product formed depends on the availability of oxygen, water, and chloride ion, but the result is essentially the same. These corrosion products occupy from 2 to 14 times the volume of the original steel, creating an expansive force that is sufficient to cause the concrete to crack. Propagation of the cracks leads to staining, spalling and delamination of concrete. Zinc, as a sacrificial anode, has been used to cathodically protect ships hulls for more than a century now. It has become a common practice to use cathodic protection either alone or in combination with coatings for buried pipelines, storage tanks and offshore structures. It has been well established both in theory and in practice that the process achieves an immediate reduction in corrosion rate by making the reinforcing steel the cathode, inhibiting its tendency to oxidize. In addition, the cathodic reactions at the steel/concrete interface increase the alkalinity (raise the pH) by hydroxyl ion (OH-) generation and drive chloride ions (Cl-) away from the steel as a result of the negative charge on the ions being repelled by the negative polarity of the reinforcement and attracted to the positive polarity of an installed anode.
Double replacement Purification (barium is poisonous) BaCl 2 + MgSO 4 BaSO 4 + MgCl 2 Ba 2+ (aq) +2Cl - (aq) +Mg 2+ (aq) +SO 4 2- (aq) BaSO 4(s) +Mg 2+ (aq) +2Cl - (aq) AB + CD AD + CB
Double replacement Extraction (Nitric acid) AgNO 3(aq) + Mg(NO 3 ) 2(aq) AB + CD AD + CB Ag + Mg AgNO 3(aq) + NaCl (aq) AgCl (s) + NaNO 3(aq)
Double replacement Neutralizing corrosives NaOH + CH 3 COOH NaC 2 H 3 O 2 +HOH AB + CD AD + CB
HCl Double replacement Neutralizing corrosives 2HCl + Na 2 CO 3 2NaCl + H 2 CO 3 H 2 CO 3 H 2 O + CO 2(g) AB + CD AD + CB