The organizations we created have become tyrants. They have taken control, holding us fettered, creating barriers that hinder rather than help our businesses. The lines that we drew on our neat organizational diagrams have turned into walls that no one can scale or penetrate or even peer over. Frank Lekanne Deprez & René Tissen, Zero Space: Moving Beyond Organizational Limits.
If you dont like change, youre going to like irrelevance even less. General Eric Shinseki, Chief of Staff, U. S. Army
Erics Army Flat. Fast. Agile. Adaptable. Light … But Lethal. Brand You/ Talent/ I Am An ARMY Of One. Info-intense. Network-centric.
It is generally much easier to kill an organization than change it substantially. Kevin Kelly, Out of Control
Wealth in this new regime flows directly from innovation, not optimization. That is, wealth is not gained by perfecting the known, but by imperfectly seizing the unknown. Kevin Kelly, New Rules for the New Economy
Forbes100 from 1917 to 1987: 39 members of the Class of 17 were alive in 87; 18 in 87 F100; 18 F100 survivors underperformed the market by 20%; just 2 (2%), GE & Kodak, outperformed the market 1917 to 1987. S&P 500 from 1957 to 1997: 74 members of the Class of 57 were alive in 97; 12 (2.4%) of 500 outperformed the market from 1957 to 1997. Source: Dick Foster & Sarah Kaplan, Creative Destruction: Why Companies That Are Built to Last Underperform the Market
Mr. Foster and his McKinsey colleagues collected detailed performance data stretching back 40 years for 1,000 U.S. companies. They found that none of the long-term survivors managed to outperform the market. Worse, the longer companies had been in the database, the worse they did. Financial Times/11.28.2002
Its just a fact: Survivors underperform. Dick Foster
Rate of Leaving F500 1970-1990: 4X Source: The Company, John Micklethwait & Adrian Wooldridge (1974-200: One-half biggest 100 disappear)
Far from being a source of comfort, bigness became a code for inflexibility. John Micklethwait & Adrian Wooldridge, The Company
Good management was the most powerful reason [leading firms] failed to stay atop their industries. Precisely because these firms listened to their customers, invested aggressively in technologies that would provide their customers more and better products of the sort they wanted, and because they carefully studied market trends and systematically allocated investment capital to innovations that promised the best returns, they lost their positions of leadership. Clayton Christensen, The Innovators Dilemma
Forget>Learn The problem is never how to get new, innovative thoughts into your mind, but how to get the old ones out. Dee Hock
When asked to name just one big merger that had lived up to expectations, Leon Cooperman, former cochairman of Goldman Sachs Investment Policy Committee, answered: Im sure there are success stories out there, but at this moment I draw a blank. Mark Sirower, The Synergy Trap
Acquisitions are about buying market share. Our challenge is to create markets. There is a big difference. Peter Job, CEO, Reuters
Active mutators in placid times tend to die off. They are selected against. Reluctant mutators in quickly changing times are also selected against. Carl Sagan & Ann Druyan, Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors
Lessons from the Bees! Since merger mania is now the rage, what lessons can the bees teach us? A simple one: Merging is not in nature. [Natures] process is the exact opposite: one of growth, fragmentation and dispersal. There is no megalomania, no merging for mergings sake. The point is that unlike corporations, which just get bigger, bee colonies know when the time has come to split up into smaller colonies which can grow value faster. What the bees are telling us is that the corporate world has got it all wrong. David Lascelles, Co-director of The Centre for the Study of Financial Innovation [UK]
Huh? Quiet, workmanlike, stoic leaders bring about the big transformations.--JC
Pastels? T. Paine/P. Henry/A. Hamilton/T. Jefferson/B. Franklin A. Lincoln/U. S. Grant/W. T. Sherman TR/FDR/LBJ/RR/JFK M.L. King C. de Gaulle M. Gandhi W. Churchill M. Thatcher Picasso Mozart Copernicus/Newton/Einstein J. Welch/L. Gerstner/L. Ellison/B. Gates/S. Ballmer/S. Jobs/S. McNealy A. Carnegie/J. P. Morgan/H. Ford/J.D. Rockefeller/T. A. Edison
Built to Last v. Built to Flip The problem with Built to Last is that its a romantic notion. Large companies are incapable of ongoing innovation, of ongoing flexibility. Increasingly, successful businesses will be ephemeral. They will be built to yield something of value – and once that value has been exhausted, they will vanish. Fast Company (03-00)
The corporation as we know it, which is now 120 years old, is not likely to survive the next 25 years. Legally and financially, yes, but not structurally and economically. Peter Drucker, Business 2.0 (08.00)
The difficulties … arise from the inherent conflict between the need to control existing operations and the need to create the kind of environment that will permit new ideas to flourishand old ones to die a timely death. … We believe that most corporations will find it impossible to match or outperform the market without abandoning the assumption of continuity. The current apocalypsethe transition from a state of continuity to state of discontinuityHas the same suddenness [as the trauma that beset civilization in 1000 A.D.] Richard Foster & Sarah Kaplan, Creative Destruction (The McKinsey Quarterly)
Jane Jacobs: Exuberant Variety vs. the Great Blight of Dullness. F.A. Hayek: Spontaneous Discovery Process. Joseph Schumpeter: the Gales of Creative Destruction.
2.5G, 3G, 4G Windows Symbian Java Bluetooth Wi-Fi PCs-PDAs-Cellphones E-business vs. M-business Etc.
Outsiders view: (1) Billions are being spent, even in a down market. (2) NOBODY HAS A CLUE AS TO WHO THE WINNERSAND LOSERS WILL BE. (3) Yet you must play. Now. Hard. Fast.
WebWorld = Everything Web as a way to run your businesss innards Web as connector for your entire supply-demand chain Web as spiders web which re-conceives the industry Web/B2B as ultimate wake-up call to commodity producers Web as the scourge of slack, inefficiency, sloth, bureaucracy, poor customer data Web as an Encompassing Way of Life Web = Everything (P.D. to after-sales) Web forces you to focus on what you do best Web as entrée, at any size, to Worlds Best at Everything as next door neighbor
Ebusiness is about rebuilding the organization from the ground up. Most companies today are not built to exploit the Internet. Their business processes, their approvals, their hierarchies, the number of people they employ … all of that is wrong for running an ebusiness. Ray Lane, Kleiner Perkins
Dont rebuild. Reimagine. The New York Times Magazine on the future of the WTC space in Lower Manhattan/09.08.2002
Supposejust supposethat the Web is a new world were just beginning to inhabit. Were like the earlier European settlers in the United States, living on the edge of the forest. We dont know whats there and we dont know exactly what we need to do to find out: Do we pack mountain climbing gear, desert wear, canoes, or all three? Of course while the settlers may not have known what the geography of the New World was going to be, they at least knew that there was a geography. The Web, on the other hand, has no geography, no landscape. It has no distance. It has nothing natural in it. It has few rules of behavior and fewer lines of authority. Common sense doesnt hold here, and uncommon sense hasnt yet emerged. David Weinberger, Small Pieces Loosely Joined
The e-conomy is one of re-intermediation, where new technologies make it possible to radically increase complexity and efficiency with the introduction of new marketplaces. In these markets, value chains constantly reorganize as the demands of the consumer and business change. Thomas Koulopoulos, Delphi Group
Hyperlinks subvert hierarchy! The Cluetrain Manifesto
The Web enables total transparency. People with access to relevant information are beginning to challenge any type of authority. The stupid, loyal and humble customer, employee, patient or citizen is dead. Kjell Nordström and Jonas Ridderstråle, Funky Business
Parents, doctors, stockbrokers, even military leaders are starting to lose the authority they once had. There are all these roles premised on access to privileged information. … What we are witnessing is a collapse of that advantage, prestige and authority. Michael Lewis, next
Whats the Common Denominator? The Dutch … the British … the Rothschilds … Cargill … Sumitomo … the KGB … the CIA … Mossad … Enron … Wal*Mart … McKinsey … FedEx … UPS … Executive secretaries … the Corner Grocer … Women-in- general?
Masters of information acquisition, manipulation, dissemination, and utilization. Networkmeisters. Agile. Temporary. Virtual is thy name. Motto: Applied information is power/wealth.
Dawn Meyerreicks, CTO of the Defense Intelligence Systems Agency, made one of the most fateful military calls of the 21 st century. After 9/11 … her office quickly leased all the available transponders covering Central Asia. The implications should change everything about U.S. military thinking in the years ahead. The U.S. Air Force had kicked off its fight against the Taliban with an ineffective bombing campaign, and Washington was anguishing over whether to send in a few Army divisions. Donald Rumsfeld told Gen. Tommy Franks to give the initiative to 250 Special Forces already on the ground. They used satellite phones, Predator surveillance drones, and GPS- and laser-based targeting systems to make the air strikes brutally effective. In effect, they Napsterized the battlefield by cutting out the middlemen (much of the militarys command and control) and working directly with the real players. … The data came in so fast that HQ revised operating procedures to allow intelligence analysts and attack planners to work directly together. Their favorite tool, incidentally, was instant messaging over a secure network.Ned Desmond/Broadbands New Killer App/Business 2.0/ OCT2002
4. The PSF Solution: The Professional Service Firm Model.
Demo = Story A key – perhaps the key – to leadership is the effective communication of a story. Howard Gardner, Leading Minds: An Anatomy of Leadership
Culture of Prototyping Effective prototyping may be the most valuable core competence an innovative organization can hope to have. Michael Schrage
You cant be a serious innovator unless and until you are ready, willing and able to seriously play. Serious play is not an oxymoron; it is the essence of innovation. Michael Schrage, Serious Play
He who has the quickest O.O.D.A. Loops* wins! *Observe. Orient. Decide. Act. / Col. John Boyd
Some people look for things that went wrong and try to fix them. I look for things that went right and try to build on them. Bob Stone/ Mr.Rego/ Lessons from an Uncivil Servant
REAL Org Change: Demos & Models (Model Installations, ReGo Labs)/ Heroes (mostly extant: burned to reinvent govt)/ Stories & Storytellers (Props!)/ Chroniclers (Writers, Videographers, Pamphleteers, Etc.)/ Cheerleaders & Recognition (Pos>>Neg, Volume)/ New Language (Hot/Emotional/WOW)/ Seekers (networking mania)/ Protectors / Support Groups / End RunsPull Strategy (weird alliances, weird customers, weird suppliers, weird alumnae-JKC)/ Field Real People Focus (3 COs) (long way away)/ Speed (O.O.D.A. Loopsact before the bad guys can react) C.f., Bob Stone, Lessons from an Uncivil Servant
Find something small that you can turn around. If youre on a 9- game losing streak, you need to start with one great inning.Rudy
Giant projects contain within them the almost certain seeds of mediocrity. The very fact of their size causes constant scrutiny and thence political interference. Such oversight drains the passion of the champions and risksto the point of certaintyfatal dumbing down and thence loss of the very distinction and quirkiness sought in the first place. Studio President, Hollywood
The Cracked Ones Let in the Light Our business needs a massive transfusion of talent, and talent, I believe, is most likely to be found among non-conformists, dissenters and rebels. David Ogilvy
A great idea always comes from one persons mind, someone who is, by definition, local. If you place 10 people in Brussels to conceive a European [ad/marketing] campaign, youll get nothing. Source: Jean-Marie Dru, Disruption
The A students work for the B students. The C students run the business. The D students dedicate the buildings. Assertion to Kinkos founder Paul Orfalea from his Mom (Fortune/05.13.02)
Thomas Stanley has not only found no correlation between success in school and an ability to accumulate wealth, hes actually found a negative correlation. It seems that school- related evaluations are poor predictors of economic success, Stanley concluded. What did predict success was a willingness to take risks. Yet the success-failure standards of most schools penalized risk takers. Most educational systems reward those who play it safe. As a result, those who do well in school find it hard to take risks later on. Richard Farson & Ralph Keyes, Whoever Makes the Most Mistakes Wins
9. THINK WEIRD: The High Standard Deviation Enterprise.
We are crazy. We should do something when people say it is crazy. If people say something is good, it means someone else is already doing it. Hajime Mitarai, Canon
Saviors-in-Waiting Disgruntled Customers Off-the-Scope Competitors Rogue Employees Fringe Suppliers Wayne Burkan, Wide Angle Vision: Beat the Competition by Focusing on Fringe Competitors, Lost Customers, and Rogue Employees
CUSTOMERS: Future- defining customers may account for only 2% to 3% of your total, but they represent a crucial window on the future. Adrian Slywotzky, Mercer Consultants
The future has already happened. Its just not evenly distributed. Adrian Slywotzky
*P&G: Declining domestic sales in 20 of 26 categories; 7 of top 10 categories. (The billion- dollar problem.) Source: Advertising Age 01.21.2002/BofA Securities
Ways to Raise a Purple Cow Think small. One vestige of the TV- industrial complex is a need to think mass. If it doesnt appeal to everyone, the thinking goes, its not worth it. Think of the smallest conceivable marketand describe a product that overwhelms it with remarkability. Go from there. Source: Seth Godin, Fast Company (02.2003)
HAVE MBAs KILLED OFF MARKETING? Prof Rajeev Batra says: What these times call for is more creative and breakthrough reengineering of product and service benefits, but we dont train people to think like that. The way marketing is taught across business schools is far too analytical and data- driven. Weve taken away the emphasis on creativity and big ideas that characterize real marketing breakthroughs. In India there is an added problem: most senior marketing jobs have been traditionally dominated by MBAs. Santosh Desai, vice president, McCann Erickson, an MBA himself, believes in India engineer-MBAs, armed with this Lego-like approach, tend to reduce marketing into neat components. This reductionist thinking runs counter to the idea that great brands must have a core, unifying idea. Businessworld/04Nov2002/Why Is Marketing Not Working?
COMPETITORS: The best swordsman in the world doesnt need to fear the second best swordsman in the world; no, the person for him to be afraid of is some ignorant antagonist who has never had a sword in his hand before; he doesnt do the thing he ought to do, and so the expert isnt prepared for him; he does the thing he ought not to do and often it catches the expert out and ends him on the spot. Mark Twain
Employees: Are there enough weird people in the lab these days? V. Chmn., pharmaceutical house, to a lab director (06.01)
Suppliers: There is an ominous downside to strategic supplier relationships. An SSR supplier is not likely to function as any more than a mirror to your organization. Fringe suppliers that offer innovative business practices need not apply. Wayne Burkan, Wide Angle Vision: Beat the Competition by Focusing on Fringe Competitors, Lost Customers, and Rogue Employees
WEIRD IDEAS THAT WORK: (1) Hire slow learners (of the organizational code). (1.5) Hire people who make you uncomfortable, even those you dislike. (2) Hire people you (probably) dont need. (3) Use job interviews to get ideas, not to screen candidates. (4) Encourage people to ignore and defy superiors and peers. (5) Find some happy people and get them to fight. (6) Reward success and failure, punish inaction. (7) Decide to do something that will probably fail, then convince yourself and everyone else that success is certain. (8) Think of some ridiculous, impractical things to do, then do them. (9) Avoid, distract, and bore customers, critics, and anyone who just wants to talk about money. (10) Dont try to learn anything from people who seem to have solved the problems you face. (11) Forget the past, particularly your companys success. Bob Sutton, Weird Ideas That Work: 11½ Ideas for Promoting, Managing, and Sustaining Innovation
Advice to Corporate Leaders: Consider the metaphor of the windmill: You can harness raw power but you cant control it. … Hire artists, clowns, or other disrupters to come in and challenge your corporate environment. … Hire a corporate anthropologist to analyze how tolerant your organization is of deviants and other innovators. … Once the anthropologist leaves, hire a shaman to drive out the evil spirits of conformity. … Source: Ryan Matthews & Watts Wacker, Fast Company (03.02)
Successful Businesses Dozen Truths: TPs 30-Year Perspective 1. Insanely Great & Quirky Talent. 2. Disrespect for Tradition. 3. Totally Passionate (to the Point of Irrationality) Belief in What We Are Here to Do. 4. Utter Disbelief at the BS that Marks Normal Industry Behavior. 5. A Maniacal Bias for Execution … and Utter Contempt for Those Who Dont Get It. 6. Speed Demons. 7. Up or Out. (Meritocracy Is Thy Name. Sycophancy Is Thy Scourge.) 8. Passionate Hatred of Bureaucracy. 9. Willingness to Lead the Customer … and Take the Heat Associated Therewith. (Mantra: Satan Invented Focus Groups to Derail True Believers.) 10. Reward Excellent Failures. Punish Mediocre Successes. 11. Courage to Stand Alone on Ones Record of Accomplishment Against All the Forces of Conventional Wisdom. 12. A Crystal Clear Understanding of the power of Great Stories.
20 Insane Ideas for the World Bank 1. 10 THINGS YOU NEVER KNEW ABOUT THE WORLD BANK … is Very Cool. 2. You couldnt BRAND your way out of a wet paper bag. 3. Make your Mark where you can make a Difference … a Real & Immediate Difference, not a Theoretical Difference. (In the Long Run, were all dead.) (A good plan executed right now trumps a great plan executed much later.) 4. The Field Matters … WASHINGTON IS BULLSHIT. 5. THEORY STINKS. ACTION MATTERS. 6. BIG projects [MOSTLY] stink. 7. Crazy experiments rule! (Drop the.) 8. Whoever has the fastest OODA Loops wins. 9. Energy & Passion & Commitment Move Mountains … not importance. 10. If the Local Establishment supports it, it is probably a Bad Idea. (After all, they got us into this mess.) 11. RENAGADES! 12. Wildly Passionate Teams … alone … can change the world. 13. There are too many Economists at the World Bank. (CEOs who are economists < 1%.) 14. They dont call economics the dismal science for nothing. (Think Exuberant Variety. Think Gales of Creative Destruction.) 15. GIVE ME DO-ERS … NOT THINKERS. 16. Whoever makes the most mistakes wins. (REWARD EXCELLENT FAILURES. PUNISH MEDIOCRE SUCCESSES.) 17. Herbalife & the World Bank??? 18. COOL STORIES RULE. 19. Transparency KILLS Bad Guys. So … PRACTICE TRANSPARENCY. 20. A half century of honorable work has not saved the world. (So: S.A.V. GO FOR IT!)
Leaders-Teachers Do Not Transform People! Instead leaders-mentors-teachers (1) provide a context which is marked by (2) access to a luxuriant portfolio of meaningful opportunities (projects) which (3) allow people to fully (and safely, mostlycaveat: they dont engage unless theyre mad about something) express their innate curiosity and (4) engage in a vigorous discovery voyage (alone and in small teams, assisted by an extensive self-constructed network) by which those people (5) go to-create places they (and their mentors-teachers- leaders) had never dreamed existedand then the leaders-mentors-teachers (6) applaud like hell, stage photo-ops, and ring the church bells 100 times to commemorate the bravery of their followers explorations!
Renaissance Men are … a snare, a myth, a delusion!
7. The Leader Is Rarely/Never the Best Performer.
33 Division Titles. 26 League Pennants. 14 World Series: Earl Weaver0. Tom Kelly0. Jim Leyland0. Walter Alston1AB. Tony LaRussa132 games, 6 seasons. Tommy LasordaP, 26 games. Sparky Anderson1 season.
If Microsoft is good at anything, its avoiding the trap of worrying about criticism. Microsoft fails constantly. Theyre eviscerated in public for lousy products. Yet they persist, through version after version, until they get something good enough. Then they leverage the power theyve gained in other markets to enforce their standard. Seth Godin, Zooming Seth Godin
It is no use saying We are doing our best. You have got to succeed in doing what is necessary. WSC
assessing When assessing candidates, the first thing I looked for was energy and enthusiasm for execution. Does she talk about the thrill of getting things done, the obstacles overcome, the role her people playedor does she keep wandering back to strategy or philosophy? Larry Bossidy, Honeywell/AlliedSignal, in Execution
15. BUT … Leaders Are Realists/Leaders Win Through LOGISTICS!
21. BUT … Leaders Have to Deliver, So They Worry About Throwing the Baby Out with the Bathwater.
Damned If You Do, Damned If You Dont, Just Plain Damned. Subtitle in the chapter, Own Up to the Great Paradox: Success Is the Product of Deep Grooves/ Deep Grooves Destroy Adaptivity, Liberation Management (1992)
1 st Law Mktg Physics: OVERT BENEFIT (Focus: 1 or 2 > 3 or 4/One Great Thing. Source #1: Personal Passion) 2 ND Law: REAL REASON TO BELIEVE (Stand & Deliver!) 3 RD Law: DRAMATIC DIFFERENCE (Execs Dont Get It: intent to purchase – 100%; unique – 0% to 5%) Source: Jump Start Your Business Brain, Doug HallDoug Hall
26. Leaders … Make Their Mark / Leaders … Do Stuff That Matters
I never, ever thought of myself as a businessman. I was interested in creating things I would be proud of.Richard Branson
Ah, kids: What is your vision for the future? What have you accomplished since your first book? Close your eyes and imagine me immediately doing something about what youve just said. What would it be? Do you feel you have an obligation to Make the world a better place?
31. Leaders LOVE RAINBOWS – for Pragmatic Reasons.
Diversity defines the health and wealth of nations in a new century. Mighty is the mongrel. … The hybrid is hip. The impure, the mélange, the adulterated, the blemished, the rough, the black-and-blue, the mix-and-match – these people are inheriting the earth. Mixing is the new norm. Mixing trumps isolation. It spawns creativity, nourishes the human spirit, spurs economic growth and empowers nations. G. Pascal Zachary, The Global Me: New Cosmopolitans and the Competitive Edge
Message: Leadership is all about love! [Passion, Enthusiasms, Appetite for Life, Engagement, Commitment, Great Causes & Determination to Make a Damn Difference, Shared Adventures, Bizarre Failures, Growth, Insatiable Appetite for Change.] [Otherwise, why bother? Just read Dilbert. TPs final words: CYNICISM SUCKS.]
It was much later that I realized Dads secret. He gained respect by giving it. He talked and listened to the fourth-grade kids in Spring Valley who shined shoes the same way he talked and listened to a bishop or a college president. He was seriously interested in who you were and what you had to say. Sara Lawrence-Lightfoot, Respect
Individuals (would-be leaders) cannot engage in a liberating mutual discovery process unless they are comfortable with their own skin. (Leaders who are not comfortable with themselves become petty control freaks.)
The Gospel According to TP: Upon having the Leadership Mantle placed upon thine head, thou shalt never hear the unvarnished truth again!* (*Therefore, thy needs one faithful compatriot to lay it on with no jelly.)
20 Insane Ideas for the World Bank 1. 10 THINGS YOU NEVER KNEW ABOUT THE WORLD BANK … is Very Cool. 2. You couldnt BRAND your way out of a wet paper bag. 3. Make your Mark where you can make a Difference … a Real & Immediate Difference, not a Theoretical Difference. (In the Long Run, were all dead.) (A good plan executed right now trumps a great plan executed much later.) 4. The Field Matters … WASHINGTON IS BULLSHIT. 5. THEORY STINKS. ACTION MATTERS. 6. BIG projects [MOSTLY] stink. 7. Crazy experiments rule! (Drop the.) 8. Whoever has the fastest OODA Loops wins. 9. Energy & Passion & Commitment Move Mountains … not importance. 10. If the Local Establishment supports it, it is probably a Bad Idea. (After all, they got us into this mess.) 11. RENAGADES RULE. 12. Wildly Passionate Teams … alone … can change the world. 13. There are too many Economists at the World Bank. (CEOs who are economists < 1%.) 14. They dont call economics the dismal science for nothing. (Think Exuberant Variety. Think Gales of Creative Destruction.) 15. GIVE ME DO-ERS … NOT THINKERS. 16. Whoever makes the most mistakes wins. (REWARD EXCELLENT FAILURES. PUNISH MEDIOCRE SUCCESSES.) 17. Herbalife & the World Bank??? 18. COOL STORIES RULE. 19. Transparency KILLS Bad Guys. So … PRACTICE TRANSPARENCY. 20. A half century of honorable work has not saved the world. So: S.A.V. GO FOR IT!)
Successful Businesses Dozen Truths: TPs 30-Year Perspective 1. Insanely Great & Quirky Talent. 2. Disrespect for Tradition. 3. Totally Passionate (to the Point of Irrationality) Belief in What We Are Here to Do. 4. Utter Disbelief at the BS that Marks Normal Industry Behavior. 5. A Maniacal Bias for Execution … and Utter Contempt for Those Who Dont Get It. 6. Speed Demons. 7. Up or Out. (Meritocracy Is Thy Name. Sycophancy Is Thy Scourge.) 8. Passionate Hatred of Bureaucracy. 9. Willingness to Lead the Customer … and Take the Heat Associated Therewith. (Mantra: Satan Invented Focus Groups to Derail True Believers.) 10. Reward Excellent Failures. Punish Mediocre Successes. 11. Courage to Stand Alone on Ones Record of Accomplishment Against All the Forces of Conventional Wisdom. 12. A Crystal Clear Understanding of Brand Power.