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CPSC 411 Design and Analysis of Algorithms Set 3: Divide and Conquer Prof. Jennifer Welch Spring 2011 CPSC 411, Spring 2011: Set 3 1

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2 Divide and Conquer Paradigm An important general technique for designing algorithms: divide problem into subproblems recursively solve subproblems combine solutions to subproblems to get solution to original problem Use recurrences to analyze the running time of such algorithms

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CPSC 411, Spring 2011: Set 33 Mergesort as D&C Example DIVIDE the input sequence in half RECURSIVELY sort the two halves basis of the recursion is sequence with 1 key COMBINE the two sorted subsequences by merging them

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CPSC 411, Spring 2011: Set 34 Mergesort Example 13242566 26451263 52641362 5264 2564 13 13 62 62 5624 56214362 1362

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CPSC 411, Spring 2011: Set 35 Mergesort Animation http://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/models/ run.cgi?MergeSort.862.378 http://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/models/ run.cgi?MergeSort.862.378

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CPSC 411, Spring 2011: Set 36 Recurrence Relation for Mergesort Let T(n) be worst case time on a sequence of n keys If n = 1, then T(n) = (1) (constant) If n > 1, then T(n) = 2 T(n/2) + (n) two subproblems of size n/2 each that are solved recursively (n) time to do the merge

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CPSC 411, Spring 2011: Set 37 How To Solve Recurrences Ad hoc method: expand several times guess the pattern can verify with proof by induction Master theorem general formula that works if recurrence has the form T(n) = aT(n/b) + f(n) a is number of subproblems n/b is size of each subproblem f(n) is cost of non-recursive part

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CPSC 411, Spring 2011: Set 38

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CPSC 411, Spring 2011: Set 39 Additional D&C Algorithms binary search divide sequence into two halves by comparing search key to midpoint recursively search in one of the two halves combine step is empty quicksort divide sequence into two parts by comparing pivot to each key recursively sort the two parts combine step is empty

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CPSC 411, Spring 2011: Set 310 Additional D&C Applications computational geometry finding closest pair of points finding convex hull mathematical calculations converting binary to decimal integer multiplication matrix multiplication matrix inversion Fast Fourier Transform

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CPSC 411, Spring 2011: Set 311 Matrix Multiplication Consider two n by n matrices A and B Definition of AxB is n by n matrix C whose (i,j)-th entry is computed like this: consider row i of A and column j of B multiply together the first entries of the row and column, the second entries, etc. then add up all the products Number of scalar operations (multiplies and adds) in straightforward algorithm is O(n 3 ). Can we do it faster?

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CPSC 411, Spring 2011: Set 312 Faster Matrix Multiplication Clever idea due to Strassen Start with a recursive version of the straightfoward algorithm divide A, B and C into 4 quadrants compute the 4 quadrants of C by doing 8 matrix multiplications on the quadrants of A and B, plus (n 2 ) scalar operations

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CPSC 411, Spring 2011: Set 313 Faster Matrix Multiplication Running time of recursive version of straightfoward algorithm is T(n) = 8T(n/2) + (n 2 ) T(2) = (1) where T(n) is running time on an n x n matrix Master theorem gives us: T(n) = (n 3 ) Can we do fewer recursive calls (fewer multiplications of the n/2 x n/2 submatrices)?

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CPSC 411, Spring 2011: Set 314 Strassen's Matrix Multiplication There is a way to get all the required information with only 7 matrix multiplications, instead of 8. unintuitive Recurrence for new algorithm is T(n) = 7T(n/2) + (n 2 ) solution is T(n) = (n log 7 ) = O(n 2.81 )

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CPSC 411, Spring 2011: Set 315

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CPSC 411, Spring 2011: Set 316 Discussion of Strassen's Algorithm Not always practical constant factor is larger than for naïve method specially designed methods are better on sparse matrices issues of numerical (in)stability recursion uses lots of space Not the fastest known method Fastest known is O(n 2.376 ) Best lower bound known is only is (n 2 )

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A. Levitin “Introduction to the Design & Analysis of Algorithms,” 3rd ed., Ch. 5 ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ. All Rights Reserved.

A. Levitin “Introduction to the Design & Analysis of Algorithms,” 3rd ed., Ch. 5 ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ. All Rights Reserved.

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