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Copyright, 2006-07 1 Web 2.0 Roger Clarke Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, Canberra Visiting Professor, Uni. of Hong Kong, U.N.S.W., A.N.U.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright, 2006-07 1 Web 2.0 Roger Clarke Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, Canberra Visiting Professor, Uni. of Hong Kong, U.N.S.W., A.N.U."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright, 2006-07 1 Web 2.0 Roger Clarke Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, Canberra Visiting Professor, Uni. of Hong Kong, U.N.S.W., A.N.U.{.html,.ppt} Uni Koblenz – 22 May 2007

2 Copyright, 2006-07 2 Web 2.0 Agenda Web 1.0 Three Views of Web 2.0 The Marketer / Neo Movement The Technical View The Communitarian View

3 Copyright, 2006-07 3 The Web... or Web 1.0 1991-static HTML 1992-Ways to Discover a Web-Page 1994- HTML customised 'on the fly', using database extracts 1996-Markup; and Display Control 1995-Means to Manipulate Data, Display 2003-Web Services

4 Copyright, 2006-07 4 Static HTML

5 Copyright, 2006-07 5 Ways To Discover a Web-Page Guess the URL (e.g.,,, Know the URL (e.g. see it on a bus or business card, have it stored in a bookmark/favourites) Receive the URL in an email or other message Follow a Hot-Link in another web-page Follow down a Menu Hierarchy Search for it. This may be based on: a free-text concordance or index a meta-data index or catalogue

6 Copyright, 2006-07 6 Search Architecture

7 Copyright, 2006-07 7 Markup; and Display Control SGML HTML XML XHTML XML DTD XML Schema, RDF UBL CSS XSL XSLT SMIL

8 Copyright, 2006-07 8 Means to Manipulate Data and Displays Client-Side Processing Cookies Javascript / ECMAScript Plug-ins, esp. Flash, Acrobat, QuickTime Java (with sandbox) ActiveX/.NET (without!??) Server-Side Processing Customised HTML e.g. Apache SSI, MS ASP, PHP,... Web-Forms State Maintenance CGI Scripts eCommerce Web- Servers

9 Copyright, 2006-07 9 The Primary Web-Services Protocols Find usingUDDI Universal Description, Discovery and Integration Catalogue usingWSDL Web Services Defn Language Invoke usingSOAP Simple Object Access Protocol (XML-RPC) Format usingXML eXtensible Markup Language __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________ Transmit usingHTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol I.P.S. Internet Protocol Stack generally

10 Copyright, 2006-07 10 Web Service Architecture

11 Copyright, 2006-07 11 Web 2.0 – by Marketing Cliché A way of thought, rather than a technology: The world has changed (get with it) Loosen up (you cant control) Open up (you cant stay closed) Be accessible (not just web-browsers) Involve (get users on the inside) Mutate (continuous improvement / gamma; or is that just an excuse for permanent beta?)

12 Copyright, 2006-07 12 Web 1.0 Web 2.0 DoubleClick Google AdSense Ofoto Flickr Akamai BitTorrent ( iTunes) (Napster, FastTrackBitTorrent) Britannica Online Wikipedia personal websites web-blogs / blogs page views cost per click publishing participation content mngt systemswikis directories (taxonomy)tagging (folksonomy) stickinesssyndication After OReilly (2005) Web 2.0 – by Difference

13 Copyright, 2006-07 13 Web 2.0 – by Features Content Syndication Advertising Syndication Storage Syndication The 'Architecture of Participation'

14 Copyright, 2006-07 14 Syndication Originally, a syndicate was a group of investors, cf. a joint venture More recently, a means of distribution esp. of media material e.g. sports photos, cartoons, and opinions by commentators Recently, arrangements by which a party that originates content (a) licenses others to utilise it, and (b) facilitates dissemination of copies of it, and of metadata about it

15 Copyright, 2006-07 15 Content Syndication Posts to Usenet News, Fora, eMail-Lists Personalised eNewspapers (originally by fax, then email,...) eMail Notification when a web-page changes Mirrors of web-page content Web-Logs / Blogs 'Who I'm Reading' feature of blogs 'Feeds' of recently-published headlines & URLs using XML/RDF-based RSS and Atom

16 Copyright, 2006-07 16 Prof. Dr. Miriam Merkel

17 Copyright, 2006-07 17 Advertising Syndication Overture (2001) Google AdWords From Pay-per-ad (per insert/appearance) To 'Pay-per-click (per click on an ad): Advertisers use metadata (keywords) to indicate what the ad is about They do pay to use a keyword They dont pay for an ad display They do pay when someone clicks on it

18 Copyright, 2006-07 18 Maturation of Pay-per-Click Initially implemented on relatively small numbers of web-sites that attract large numbers of visits Then deployed on vast numbers of much smaller web-sites through affiliation Theoretical basis: 'long tail' dictum Practical application: Google AdSense

19 Copyright, 2006-07 19 Advertising Industry View Page-Owners make space on their pages available to advertising intermediaries (AIs) Page-Owners provide data to AIs so that AIs can select the most relevant ads to display (and/or the highest-paying ads...) Page-Owners provide data to the AI that enables the delivery of the ads into the reserved space in the requestor's browser-window (requestors IP-address) AIs can target ads into diverse communities

20 Copyright, 2006-07 20 Consumer View The AI pushes a transaction to the user, even though the user made no request to it The AI can include in the payload any available device, e.g. active code, web-bugs The AI can place non-consensual, long-term cookies on the unsuspecting requestor's device – in defiance of IETF RFCs 2964-65 If the user clicks on an ad, a substantial set of interlocking data becomes available to the AI (incl. cookie-contents, the IP-address, and associations with the original request)

21 Copyright, 2006-07 21 Storage Syndication From Client-Server architecture To Peer-to-peer (P2P) architecture Napster in 1998 Kazaa/FastTrack in 2001 eDonkey/Gnutella in 2003 BitTorrent in 2005... Distributed Catalogues Distributed Repositories

22 Copyright, 2006-07 22 P2P Differentiated from Client-Server

23 Copyright, 2006-07 23 P2P Supports Many Payloads, incl. Ads P2P applications: Music Images Video Software News Virus Signatures The Business Model for commercial P2P has been ad-based from the very beginning The ads are stored on users devices, and disseminated from users devices

24 Copyright, 2006-07 24 'The Architecture of Participation' aka Harnessing Collective Intelligence and The Surging Wisdom of Crowds Self-Publishing / 'Vanity Press' Now called Content Syndication Collaborative Publishing: cf. CSCW – shared text-documents Wikis generally, esp. Wikipedia Free-Text Metadata: folksonomy', tags, tag-clouds

25 Copyright, 2006-07 25 Tag Cloud for Web 2.0 from

26 Copyright, 2006-07 26 'The Architecture of Participation' Benefits for Business Affiliated Advertising Space Raw Material for Data Mining, esp. by Google Training Ground for Contributors People are lured into providing gratis services in pseudo-community environments, e.g. Amazon book reviews product reviews product FAQs, which are written and maintained by unpaid volunteers rather than as a supplier support service

27 Copyright, 2006-07 27 Web 2.0 – The Technical Perspective Additional Facilities: Mixing Mash-ups – more or less ad hoc combination of content from multiple sources e.g. maps and descriptive data 'Lightweight Programming Models' – in reaction against over-blown Web Services

28 Copyright, 2006-07 28 Lightweight Programming – AJAX 'Asynchronous JavaScript and XML' A Successor to the vague Dynamic HTML Applies well-established tools: (X)HTML/CSS -> XML, JavaScript/ECMAScript Utilises the XMLHttpRequest Method of HTTP in particular to enable partial-window-refresh Involves an 'Ajax engine' within the browser, which intercepts and processes user-requests and server-responses

29 Copyright, 2006-07 29 AJAX Features Server-side control over user interface, esp. to overcome the frequent blank-screen experience Proprietary features in MSIE have defeated the Web. With AJAX, a single application can/could work consistently on all client-platforms. So the Webs original universality is recovered (maybe only briefly) Corporate View: Server-side control over consumer device, data Consumer View: Subversion of the concept of the Web Hijack of the functions of the browser

30 Copyright, 2006-07 30 Architecture of Participation? of Exploitation? The Web era has seen continual attempts to expropriate communitarian effort, and 'monetise' it: "There will be billboards along the Information Superhighway" (Kelly 1994) Proprietisation of Internet Spaces (CompuServe, AOL, Apple eWorld, many M$ failures, 1995-96) 'Web-Casting' (1997) 'Info-mediaries' (Hagel & Armstrong 1997) Portals (1998-) Consumer Profiling (1999-) –––– The Dot.Com Implosion (2000-05) –––– will we ever see 'mass micro-marketing', 'mass customisation', 'one to one' consumer marketing?

31 Copyright, 2006-07 31 The Communitarian Perspective: An Architecture of Collaboration? Wikipedia a reference repository collaborative authorship Flickr: a photo repository free-text meta-tags hence a folksonomy (cf. taxonomy) hence tag-clouds (word-size in display proportional to frequency) a bookmark repository with free-text meta- tags on to folksonomy and tag-clouds YouTube: a video repository on to......

32 Copyright, 2006-07 32 What Role in Web 2.0 for Social Networking Services ? ? Plaxo... LinkedIn...

33 Copyright, 2006-07 33 What Role in Web 2.0 for Virtual Worlds? Board-games? MUD (Multi-User Dungeon) Trubshaw, Essex University, UK, 1979 Cyberspace Gibsons Neuromancer, 1983-84 The MetaVerse Stephensons Snowcrash, 1992 SecondLife Rosedale, Linden Labs, 1999...

34 Copyright, 2006-07 34 Three Views of Web 2.0 The Marketer / Neo Movement Make money by co-opting collaboration The Technical Get inside users devices and do things The Communitarian Collaborate

35 Copyright, 2006-07 35 Some References Worth Reading The OReilly Article (30 Sep 2005): The Wikipedia Entry: but see also entries on specific topics (Flickr, Tag Clouds, etc.) Bill Higgins on Ajax and REST (2 Oct 2006): Chris McEvoys Why Ajax Sucks (Dec 2005): For lots of Vacuity, see the Web 2.0 Summits:

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