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Close Reading with Text-Based Answers

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1 Close Reading with Text-Based Answers
Administrator Forum November 29, 2012

2 CCSS Instructional Shifts for ELA
Spotlight on Text Complexity and its Language Staircase of Complexity (Jan/Feb) Academic Vocabulary (May) Increased emphasis on Informational Text and Building Knowledge Balancing Literary and Informational Text (Aug) Knowledge in the Disciplines (Sep/Oct) New grounding in reading and writing based on Evidence from Text Text-Based Answers (Nov/Dec) Writing from Sources (Mar/Apr) Biggest misconception about instructional shifts – all separate from each other. They are all interrelated. Three major instructional shifts divided into six for Broward.

3 Integrated Literacy Development
Reading Writing Listening Speaking What we read about and listen to, we can write and speak about.

4 Teach Students To Read like DETECTIVES and
Write like conscientious investigative REPORTERS

5 Requirements of a Close Reading
Understanding reader’s purpose for reading Understanding author’s purpose for writing Recognizing ideas in text as being interconnected Engaging the text while reading Formulating questions to seek answers Discussing and writing about what has been read

6 Effective Close Reading
Practices Eliminate frontloading before reading text (not to be confused with strategic scaffolding) Guide lessons with text-dependent questions Respond to text-dependent questions with evidence from the text Use author’s words to support text-based answers

7 Effective Close Reading
Practices Devote more time to each text by reading and re-reading for deeper understanding Conduct daily Interactive Read Alouds that scaffold from easier to more complex texts Every Read Aloud is NOT a Close Reading, but MUST BE interactive Scaffold by gradually releasing responsibility – teacher modeling to student independence

8 Gradual Release of Responsibility
Teacher Modeling Guided Practice Collaborative Practice Independent Application

9 responsibility shifts gradually from teacher to learner
Shared Reading/Writing Read/Write Aloud Independent Reading/Writing Guided Reading/Writing I DO WE DO YOU DO Gradual Release of Responsibility Model (Pearson and Gallagher, 1993) responsibility shifts gradually from teacher to learner

10 Interactive Read Aloud The Story of Ruby Bridges

11 Segment 1 – teacher demonstrates scaffolding for prereading, not frontloading. Teacher focuses on the book cover and leads discussion about people fighting for a cause that relates to theme of previously read texts. Teacher draws attention to evidence on the cover to support interactive discussion. Segment 2 – teacher stops herself from giving her thoughts about the text and turned the discussion over to her students. Segment 3 – teacher focuses on academic content-specific vocabulary (segregation) that is part of a theme the students have been studying and discussed during previously read texts. Segment 4 – teacher highlights the vocabulary word “credit” and writes it on the board to refer back to in future interactive discussion sessions. This word will be discussed as it relates to the current text and its use in other contexts. 1 2 3 4

12 Scaffolding the Close Reading of Complex Texts (K-2 Band)
Literary Text Informational Text

13 Strategically Share Texts
to Build Background Sharing texts of easier complexity levels across a variety of genres through daily interactive read alouds provides as scaffolding to build background knowledge in theme-related content. Once sufficient background knowledge is built, students are better equipped to participate in close analytical reading of more complex texts that would be used to conclude a theme-based study.

14 Resources Provided to Reading Resource Specialists via Email
School Codes for Treasures grades 3-5 IRA Position Statement on ELA CCSS


16 Common Core State Standards: Literacy Shifts in the Classroom
The columns below represent common look-for’s as related to the six shifts in literacy for the Common Core State Standards. Connections to the Marzano Teaching Framework are noted in bold beneath each item (D=Domain, DQ= Domain Question). More information regarding the shifts in literacy and the Common Core State Standards can be found at Balancing of Literary and Informational Text Ensure that textual materials are diverse in both nature and genre. D1.DQ4.23 Increase substantially the amount of literary nonfiction used in the classroom or throughout a student’s day. D1.DQ4.23 Provide an accessible classroom library that consists of literary and informational texts in a wide variety of genres for students to engage with independently. D1,DQ1.5 Texts are presented in a multitude of formats: written, spoken, video, and other forms of multimedia. D2.45,46 Students understand and apply reading strategies specific to literary text and specific to informational text. D1.DQ3.19 Knowledge in the Disciplines Students deepen their knowledge through more technical and formal reading and writing. D1.DQ3.19 Provide multiple sources/documents for students to utilize. D1.DQ4.23 Require students to cite multiple sources in their responses to questions and writing prompts. D1.DQ4.22 Implement reading strategies within their content area class to promote the connection of literacy to the content area. D1.DQ3.19 Students come to discussions prepared, having read or studied appropriate material and then explicitly draw on that preparation and other knowledge about the topic to explore ideas under discussion. D1.DQ2.13 Text-based Answers Ask text dependent questions from a range of question types that require students to cite strong and thorough textual evidence. D1.DQ2.6 Be patient and tolerate silences while students think, and take a “let’s find out” approach, channeling students back to the text for answers. D1.DQ5.26 Engage students in rich and rigorous conversations dependent on common text. D1.DQ5.32 Design instruction for whole group, small group, and individual instruction to cultivate student responsibility and independence. D1.DQ3.15 Students are asked to form judgments on texts based on deep reading and evidence found within the text itself. D1.DQ4.22 Staircase of Complexity Make close reading and rereading of texts central to instruction, rather than ancillary. D1.DQ3.15 Scaffold instruction to enable all students to experience, but not avoid, the complexity of the text. D2.42 Teacher gives students less to read in order dive deeper into complex text. D1.DQ2.9 Incorporate regular, observable practice with increasingly complex text. D1.DQ2.10 Utilize a variety of methods for determining the complexity of texts: qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis, and task considerations. D3.52 Writing from Sources Provide students with writing activities in which they must draw evidence from texts, support logical inferences, and present clear information and/or claims. D1.DQ4.22 Significant attention is devoted to precise details relating to tone, style, ambiguity, structure, and standard vs. non-standard conventions. D1.DQ2.6 Student writing activities should change from stating opinions to writing formal academic argument. D1.DQ4.22 Draw evidence from literary and informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. D1.DQ4.22 Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources. D1.DQ2.12 Academic Vocabulary Focus on general academic words that appear across multiple contexts of informational, technical, and literary texts. D1.DQ3.14 Help students investigate how meaning can be altered by changing key words and why authors choose one word over another. D1.DQ4.21 Students are exposed to and interact with challenging language throughout the class to acquire understandings of word meanings. D2.42 Students are taught fewer words, but at a deeper and more meaningful level. D1.DQ2.9 Instruction & Interventions, Department of Literacy

17 The Common Core Classroom: Literacy
Physical Environment Flexible layout ensuring the opportunity for whole group, small group, and independent learning Evidence of authentic student work throughout room Project-based learning environment is evident Classroom is rich with digital and media content Academic vocabulary is prevalent throughout the classroom for both instructional purposes and student reference Contains a classroom library consisting of literary and informational texts in a wide variety of genres Technology is available to the students, not just the teacher Classroom is organized in such a manner that students can find material and resources to aid in the research process. Teacher Provides students with an appropriate balance of literary and informational text Incorporates the four aspects of literacy (reading, writing, language, speaking and listening) into lessons/units of study in all content areas Serves as a facilitator within the classroom, interacting with students, as opposed to serving as the “sage on the stage” Guides the classroom discussion, but allows for topic-appropriate conversation to take place among the students Provides opportunities for authentic literacy practice rather than worksheets Utilizes technological tools in the classroom for both presentation and instruction Presents text in a multitude of formats: written, spoken, video, and other forms of multimedia Ensures that text dependent questions guide students back into the text Student Self-directed and striving towards academic independence Participates in collaborative learning opportunities Active participant in classroom discussion Draws evidence from literary and in informational texts to support analysis, reflection and research when writing and speaking Engages in the research process Reads like a detective —closely analyzing the text to determine meaning Writes like a reporter—developing a complete piece of writing that displays understanding of the process as a whole Utilizes technology to deepen knowledge of concepts, collaborate, communicate, and present mastery of learning The Common Core Classroom: Literacy Instruction & Interventions, Department of Literacy v.5

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