Presentation on theme: "Welcome to Class! No Bell Ringer today No Bell Ringer today Bell Ringers 13-20 (not #16) due on Wednesday Bell Ringers 13-20 (not #16) due on Wednesday."— Presentation transcript:
Welcome to Class! No Bell Ringer today No Bell Ringer today Bell Ringers 13-20 (not #16) due on Wednesday Bell Ringers 13-20 (not #16) due on Wednesday Goal 5 Test Wednesday Goal 5 Test Wednesday Pick-up The Gilded Age Notes Pick-up The Gilded Age Notes
Gilded Age: Essential Questions What is meant by the term Gilded Age and how true was it about American life during the late 1800s? What is meant by the term Gilded Age and how true was it about American life during the late 1800s? Why did political machines come to dominate cities during this period? Why did political machines come to dominate cities during this period? What problems arose from political machines and patronage during this era? What problems arose from political machines and patronage during this era?
What was the Gilded Age? Gilded Age: Gilded Age: Term coined by Mark Twain Term coined by Mark Twain Term was used to describe the glitter of the time period which hid the corruption in politics and government as well as the growing gap between the rich and the poor Term was used to describe the glitter of the time period which hid the corruption in politics and government as well as the growing gap between the rich and the poor
CORRUPT GOVERNMENT -many people saw gov’t jobs as means of wealth -spoils or patronage system— giving gov’t jobs to friends and party supporters -trusts and monopolies had come to dominate and control the gov’t People in gov’t positions known for corruption: -graft: illegal use of political position for personal gain -kickbacks: form of bribery, obtaining money and “gifts” illegally -Fraud: deception for personal gain
WHY CORRUPTION IS ALLOWED? -laissez-faire: (hands-off approach to gov’t) and social darwinism (survival of the fittest) led to and allowed for corruption -Lack of city services: water fire departments police departments -Lack of social services for poor and immigrants: need to find jobs need places to live need for US citizenship
Development of POLITICAL MACHINES Lack of regulation by gov’t, social services, and city services leads to the development of political machines Political machine Political machine: when a party comes to dominate an area, social darwinism at its best Political Machines are characterized by: -Pyramid in nature—a boss at the top, ward bosses who ran particular neighborhoods, and precinct workers & captains that helped secure votes -Corruption in the form of patronage, loyalty, graft, & kickbacks -Offered services (help finding jobs, a place to live, and becoming a US citizen) to immigrants in exchange for votes & monetary gifts -Controlled jobs, business (both legal and illegal like gambling rings), gov’t, tenements, etc. Why did the public allow this system??? political machines are able to provide solutions to the challenges that immigrants faced
TWEED RING -most notorious political machine was: Tweed Ring also known as Tammany Hall -controlled NYC -Boss: William Tweed -Democrats -lots of graft and corruption which allowed Tweed & the other leaders to make money off of the tax payers -many of the immigrants couldn’t read so when newspapers published articles about Tweed Ring and the corruption they went unnoticed. -eventually exposed by political cartoonist Thomas Nast, everyone can understand a picture
OTHER SCANDALS - fraudulent elections -lobbyists & captains of industry held great influence over Congress for the large trusts -patronage system leads to unqualified people in office that often used positions as a means of personal gain During the 1870s Grant’s administration: -Credit Mobilier: RR Scandal involving the construction of RR—investors literally signed contracts with themselves and then overcharged for construction to make more -Whiskey Ring: distillers paid bribe to tax collectors
CIVIL SERVICE REFORM BEGINS -Rutherford Hayes campaigns for political reform & is elected in 1877 -Hayes urges the elimination of patronage (spoils) system and establishment of merit system -Hayes leads reform efforts: appoints independents to office, sets-up investigative commissions -James Garfield (elected in 1880) continues reforms by appointing reformers to positions
-Garfield assassinated by job seeker (essentially job seeker who support Garfield during his campaign was not awarded a job b/c Garfield felt he was not qualified) Chester Arthur (VP) becomes President and passes the: -Pendleton Act passes: 1.Ended spoils/patronage system 2.established Civil Service Commission which made appointments based on a merit system 3.Required gov’t examination for jobs
Tariffs are designed to protect domestically produced goods, now United States is a world leader so are they necessary? -big business says YES -Democrats (mostly South) say NO -Grover Cleveland(1884) —tries to lower tariffs but no support from Congress -Benjamin Harrison(1888) —signed McKinley Tariff Act increasing tariffs -Cleveland again(1892) -only president to serve two non- consecutive terms -Again supported lowering tariffs, but was unsuccessful The Tariff Debate Rages On
1. What term is used to describe the time period where the success on the surface hid the corruption of big business and politics? 2. What term is used to describe the action of stealing money from the government? 3. What term describes the process of getting paid to give out gov’t projects? 4. What is a political machine? 5. Why were political machines able to control an area? 6. What kinds of people supported political machines? 7. What famous political machine controlled New York City?
8. What famous cartoonist helped to expose the corruption of the machine? 9. The spoils system, or _____________________________, means gov’t officials gave positions to their friends, & dates to Jackson. 10. Congress was often accused of being controlled by these groups in the later 1800’s. 11. Which President first began a campaign to reform the government? 12. Which President was assassinated over trying to reform the corrupt government? 13. What is the Pendleton Act? 14. What President served two non-consecutive terms? 15. What was the major issue in federal politics between 1884 and 1896?
Gilded Age Activity Study Guide Goal 5—Complete Gilded Age Questions on your own Study Guide Goal 5—Complete Gilded Age Questions on your own Quiz on Monday Quiz on Monday