Presentation on theme: "Bieszczady Mountains. Bieszczady – „Beschad Aloes Poloniae” as they are termed In a document from 1269, are together with the Przemyskie Foothills the."— Presentation transcript:
Bieszczady – „Beschad Aloes Poloniae” as they are termed In a document from 1269, are together with the Przemyskie Foothills the only east Carpathian mountain range in Poland, with the West Bieszczady completely within the Polish border.
Carpathian ranges In comparison to other Carpathian ranges, they distinguish themselves by their individual landscape. Least populated and heavily forested, the lush flora and abundant fauna, create an unrepeatable atmosphere and wild charm.
Lemko and Bojko Archaeological diggings in the area of the Użocka and Łupkowska Passes have suggested that already in the XIII century, during the rise of the Piast Dynasty, main North-South trade routes existed. The systematic settlement of this region, however, is associated with the migration of Wallachian shepherds from Transylvania and the Balkan Peninsula at the end of the XIII century. In the XIV, XV, and XVI centuries various Wallachian tribes traveled northeast with their herds along the ridge of the Carpathian range and settled in the Bieszczady. Intergratting with the local Slavonic inhabitants, they formed two distinct ethnic group: Lemko and Bojko.
One of the oldest landmarks One of the oldest landmarks in the Bieszczady, documented already in 1436, is the town of Lesko, where the Kmita family castle from beginning of the XVI century has survived. There is also an old church from around 1538 and a belltower which was added on in the XVIII century. A fortified synagogue from the XVI-XVII century and Jewish cementary with its original headstones are interesting sights to visit. In the San River Valley at Hoczew,a few kilometers from Lesko, the remains of a settlement from the X-XI century were discovered. Here also stand the XVI century castle ruins of the Bals, a historical family of settlers from Hungary, who founded Lemko and Bojko buildings. The most beautiful of these are the Orthodox churches, which stand in harmony with the picturesque mountain landscape.
Fratricide, pillaging… The name Bieszczady was said in horror, because of the fratricide, pillaging, burning and massacres taking place there. The consequence of which was the depopulation and desolation of the Bieszczady region. Nature, however, took its course and fought back, covering this once smitten land with lush foliage, trees and abundant animal life. The inhabitants regained the valleys, meadows, hills and wildlife that were once torn from them by man.
Solina and Myczków A positive point of the program was the daming of the San Ricer creating two hydro-electric plants at the villages of Solina and Myczków. On the shores of the resulting enormous lake (Solina), modern resorts sprang up. But the majority of the industrial and agricultural investments, especially in the higher areas, were economic fiascos.
The Bieszczady National Park Like everything in the Bieszczady, the history to preserve nature in these mountains was also a temperamental one. The first natural reserve was established in Stużica, which included the protection of ancient beech and sycamore trees. In 1973, the Bieszczady National Park was founded with an area of 5,725 hectares: presently it covers 27,064 ha, San Valley Scenic Park – 35,000 ha, Ciśniańsko- Wetliński Scenic Park – 46,000 ha.
Wild animals Vast stretches of dense forests have allowed the development of an abundant and varied wildlife. European specialists note that it is presently the only refuge of large forest predators in Europe: brown bear, wolf, lynx, wildcat, badger, fox, marten and otter. The wilderness character of the Bieszczady is also emphasized by the presence of bison, which since 1964 have multiplied to on hundred head.
Unique natural environment A well kept unique natural environment placed in a mountainous, scenic and picturesque landscape is conductive to good rest and peace of mind. These are the conditions that this ecological Euroregion would like to guarantee.
The Bieszczady are worth visiting at every season of the year.
In spring when Nature begins to awaken with its first flowers breaking through the snow and the song of birds resounding in the forests and valleys.
In full summer when the meadows are flush with flowers and forests a lush green.
In Autumn when all is aflame in every color imaginable while the stags return to their rutting grounds.
And finally in winter when all is under a blanket of while snow reveling animal tracks, some of which can send a chill down one’s spine.