Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Citation and Reference

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Citation and Reference"— Presentation transcript:

1 Citation and Reference
APA Style

2 Citation APA style (American Psychological Association)
Follow the author date method. Author’s last name and year of publication E.g. (Oshima, 2006) Always capitalize the author’s name.

3 Text Citation Capitalize proper nouns
Words that are four letter long or greater should be capitalized. Permanence and Change Capitalize words that are hyphenated: Natural-Born Cyborgs Capitalize first word after dash or colon: Defining Film Rhetoric: The case of Hitchcock’s Vertigo Italicize or underline longer works such as “Friends”, Wizard of Oz, The Lord of the Rings. Put Quotation marks around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles.

4 Short Quotations If you are quoting from a work, you need to include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference. According to Jones (1998), “Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it is their first time” (p.199). Jones (1998) found “students often had difficulty using APA style” (p.199). If the author is not named in the signal phrase, add the author’s last name, year of publication and page number in a parentheses after the quotation. She stated “ students often had difficulty using APA style” (Jones, 1998, p.199)

5 Long Quotations Place direct quotations longer than 40 words in a free-standing block of type written lines and omit quotation marks. Jones (1998) found the following; Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it’s their first time citing sources………………… students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help (p.199)

6 Summary or Paraphrase If you are only paraphrasing just name the author and year. According to Jones(1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first time learners. APA is a difficult citation format for first time learners (Jones, 1998, p.199)

7 Two authors Research by Wegener & Petty (1994) claims that… (Wegener & Petty, 1994) Three or more authors First time mentioned: (Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry & Harlow, 1993) Second time mentioned: (Kernis et al., 1993) Unknown author According to the American Psychological Association (2000)….. First citation : (American Psychological Association [APA], 2000) Second citation: (APA, 2000)

8 Reference Single Author last name first followed by initials.
Berndt, T.J. (2002). Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 7-10 Two Authors Wegener, D.T., & Petty, R.E. (1994) Mood management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 66,

9 Article in magazine Henry, W.A., (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today’s schools. Time, 135, 28-31 Article in newspaper Scultz, S. (2005, December 28). Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. News Straits Times, pp. 1A, 2A Online article Bernstein, M. (2002). 10 tips on writing the living Web. A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 149. Retreived from

Download ppt "Citation and Reference"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google