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Ch 2, Sec 2: Early Exploration
Objectives Explain how Portugal led the way in overseas exploration.
Develop an understanding of how Columbus’s plan for sailing to Asia led to the New World.
Early Maps Very limited in detail
Created by people traveling coast lines and drawing what they saw Only showed 3 continents: Asia, Europe, and Africa Ocean Sea-Western (Atlantic) and Eastern (Pacific) Oceans
Vikings Reached North America in the 800s-900s
Landed in Iceland and Greenland Discoveries were not well known to other people in Europe Columbus would be the first European to “discover” the Americas again.
Portugal takes the lead
Had no port on the Mediterranean Sea Wanted a trade route to Asia for spices and Africa for gold Paid explorers to find that route
Prince Henry Leader of Portugal
Started a school for explorers, astronomers, geographers, and mathematicians to work together Known as Henry the Navigator Started sending ships down the coast of Africa to trade
Portugal in Africa West Africa was a good source of gold
Known as the Gold Coast Started buying slaves in the 1400s King John II wanted sailors to find a way around the tip of Africa to India/China
Bartholomeau Dias Explored the Southern tip of Africa
Ran into a storm that pushed him around the bottom of Africa Cape of Good Hope
Vasco da Gama Took Dias’ route to India
Explored Eastern Africa and created trading stops for future ships First to reach India for an eastern sea route to Asia
Alvares Cabral Followed in Da Gama’s footsteps to India
Lisbon, India was a new trading center for the world Went to far West and hit land in what is now Brazil Land was claimed for the king of Portugal The reason why Brazil is the only country in South America to speak Portuguese
Columbus Italian citizen Wanted to sail West to go to India
Thought it would take 2 months Started sailing for Portugal for experience
Spain wants to explore Saw the success of Portugal
Wanted to gain the advantage of spice trade with Asia Italy and Portugal thought Columbus was crazy for wanting to travel West to India, but Spain supported him
Why did Spain support Columbus
Columbus promised to promote Christianity to everyone that he came into contact with If Columbus was right, he would gain a new/better route to Asia for Spain
Columbus’s First Voyage
Aug 3, 1492, Columbus left Spain heading West 3 ships-Nina, Pinta, and the Santa Maria 90 men Had to convince his crew not to mutiny
First Voyage Cont. Columbus found San Salvador (Bahamas)
Thought he was in the East Indies Caribbean Islands=West Indies Called the people Indians This proved a success and Spain under King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella decided to fund Columbus’s future trips
Columbus’ next three trips
Went back to the Americas Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic), Cuba, and Jamaica Ended up traveling up and down the coast of South America/Central America (Mexico) Europe now understood that this was not Asia and that it was a new continent Still did not understand how big of a land it was
Treaty of Tordesillas Pope Alexander VI put a line on the map known as the Line of Demarcation Spain got land to the West Portugal got land to the East Was in Spain’s favor-line was pushed further West Split all land between both countries in the New World
Amerigo Vespucci Map maker Mapped South American coast line
First to call South America a new continent America was named after him
Balboa Governor in Panama Explored the lands of Central America
First European to see the Pacific Ocean
Ferdinand Magellan Hired by Spain to find a route around South America to Asia Strait of Magellan Named the Pacific Ocean Means “peaceful” Died on the trip Only 1 of 5 ships made it after 3 years with 18 of 300 men First to circumnavigate the globe
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