Presentation on theme: "Objectives Explain the importance of New Orleans and the crisis over its port. Describe how the United States gained the Louisiana Purchase. Discuss."— Presentation transcript:
1 ObjectivesExplain the importance of New Orleans and the crisis over its port.Describe how the United States gained the Louisiana Purchase.Discuss Lewis and Clark’s expedition.
2 Terms and People expedition – a long and carefully organized journey Meriwether Lewis – army captain chosen by Jefferson to lead the exploration of the WestWilliam Clark – Lewis’s coleadercontinental divide – the place on the continent that separates river systems flowing in opposite directionsZebulon Pike – explored the southern part of the Louisiana territory from 1805–1807
3 What was the importance of the purchase and exploration of the Louisiana Territory? The tide of westward settlement speeded up in the years after America’s independence.By 1800, more than one million settlers lived between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River.
4 Most western settlers were farmers who relied on the Mississippi River. Farmers shipped goods down the Mississippi to the port of New Orleans.From there, goods were loaded on ships and carried to markets across the Atlantic.
5 Spain, which controlled the Mississippi River and New Orleans, threatened to close the port to American ships.Pinckney TreatyThis treaty guaranteed Americans’ right to ship goods down the Mississippi River to New Orleans.To prevent this, the U.S. negotiated the Pinckney Treaty with Spain in 1795.
6 Westerners demanded war with Spain. Later, after the treaty had been signed, Spain withdrew Americans’ right to ship goods through New Orleans.Westerners demanded war with Spain.
7 To make matters worse, Jefferson learned that Spain had secretly given its Louisiana Territory to France.If this happened, westward expansion of the United States would be blocked.French territoryJefferson feared that France would become dominant in America, as it was becoming in Europe.
8 Jefferson decided to try to buy New Orleans from the French. He sent James Monroe and Robert Livingston to Paris to make a deal.When they arrived in France, they discovered that the situation had shifted yet again.
9 The French had been driven from their colony on Haiti. Without Haiti, France would have trouble defending Louisiana in the event of a war.
10 Also, war between France and Britain was looming. Napoleon needed money for the war.
11 Because of France’s situation, Monroe and Livingston received a surprising offer. France offered to sell the entire Louisiana Territory to the United States.New OrleansLouisiana
12 Jefferson hesitated to approve the purchase. Was it constitutional?In the end, Jefferson decided that the purchase was constitutional because the President is able to make treaties with foreign countries.
13 After buying the Louisiana Territory in 1803, Thomas Jefferson was eager to have it explored and mapped.
14 In 1803, Jefferson convinced Congress to fund a western expedition. He chose two army officers to lead the exploration.Meriwether LewisWilliam Clark
15 Goals of the western expedition Look for a waterway from the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean.Report back on the natural features of the region.Make contact with Native Americans.Goals of the western expedition
16 Lewis and Clark left St. Louis in the spring of 1804 and explored the northern part of the Louisiana Territory.
17 Lewis and Clark’s expedition lasted for over two years. July 1804August 1804October 1804The party reached the mouth of the Platte River, which feeds into the Missouri River.The expedition followed the Missouri River from St. Louis to the Rocky Mountains.
18 They met with Native Americans for the first time. July 1804August 1804October 1804They met with Native Americans for the first time.The Americans promised to give the tribes military support and trading rights in exchange for peace.
19 July 1804August 1804October 1804They camped in what is now North Dakota for the winter.They were joined by Sacagawea, a Shoshone translator.
20 The party reached the continental divide. August 1805November 1805March 1806The party reached the continental divide.They did not find a waterway to the Pacific. Instead, they had to navigate rapids in their canoes.
21 August 1805November 1805March 1806They reached the Pacific Ocean by way of the Columbia River.They began the return journey, which took about half a year.
22 The journey of Lewis and Clark led many Americans to feel a sense of duty to expand west.
23 From 1805 to 1807, Zebulon Pike explored the southern part of the Louisiana Territory.
24 Pike returned home through Spanish New Mexico. Partway up a mountain, he was forced to turn back.Today, this mountain is known as Pike’s Peak.Pike headed west to the Rocky Mountains.Pike’s PeakRocky MountainsPike’s reports increased U.S. interest in the region.
25 Objectives Discuss how the United States defeated the Barbary pirates. Explain how war in Europe hurt American trade.Discuss the causes and effects of the Embargo Act.Identify the events leading up to the Battle of Tippecanoe.
26 Terms and Peopletribute – money paid by one country to another in return for protectionStephen Decatur – led a group of American sailors in a battle to protect the warship Philadelphia against piratesembargo – a government order that forbids foreign tradesmuggle – the act of illegally importing or exporting goods
27 Terms and People (continued) Tecumseh – organized western Native American tribes to resist American expansionWilliam Henry Harrison – governor of the Indiana Territory who sent soldiers to fight Native Americans at the Battle of Tippecanoe
28 How did Jefferson respond to threats to the security of the nation? Trade with Europe was critical to the American economy.crops and natural resourcesUnited StatesEuropemanufactured goods
29 Pirates from the North African Barbary States began attacking American ships. At first, America paid tribute, as other nations did.America paid money to the rulers of the Barbary States.The Barbary pirates stopped attacking American ships.
30 Jefferson stopped paying tribute Jefferson stopped paying tribute. He sent warships to protect American merchant ships.Pirates from the Barbary State of Tripoli captured the American ship, Philadelphia.American sailors led by Stephen Decatur burned the Philadelphia so the pirates could not use it.This victory and others inspired confidence in America’s ability to deal with foreign threats.
31 A greater threat to America came from Britain and France. United StatesIn 1803, Britain and France were at war. The United States remained neutral and profited by trading with both nations.
32 France seized American ships trading with Britain. Britain and France weakened each other by cutting off each other’s foreign trade.U.S.FranceBritainU.S.France seized American ships trading with Britain.Britain did the same to ships trading with France.
33 Once again, Britain used impressment to gather soldiers for the war with France. Thousands of Americans were forced to serve in the British navy.
34 Jefferson used a peaceful method to force Britain and France to respect American neutrality. He imposed an embargo on American ships sailing to any foreign port.foreign tradeJefferson predicted that the embargo would stop Britain and France from attacking American ships.
35 The embargo hurt America in many ways. Prices of American crops declined.embargoAmerican exports declined.Many Americans lost their jobs.Merchants turned to smuggling to survive.
36 Congress repealed the Embargo Act in 1809, just before Jefferson left office. Congress passed a new law that reopened trade with all countries except France and Britain.America would reopen trade with those countries when they started respecting America’s neutrality.
37 Also during this period, tens of thousands of American settlers moved westward. As American settlers moved west, they took over Native American lands.
38 Native Americans suffered from this expansion. Many died from new diseases.They lost their hunting grounds.Animals they hunted were driven away.The power of their leaders declined.
39 Tecumseh western tribes Shawnee leader Tecumseh organized the western tribes into a league to resist settlement.Tecumsehwestern tribesU.S. expansion
40 William Henry Harrison took action against Tecumseh’s activities. Harrison sent soldiers against Shawnee villages while Tecumseh was away.Tippecanoe River
41 In the Battle of Tippecanoe, Harrison defeated the Native Americans. Tecumseh and his allies continued their opposition to western settlement.However, Native Americans never regained their strength after the Battle of Tippecanoe.
42 Objectives Explain why the United States declared war on Britain. Describe what happened in the early days of the war.Discuss the American invasion of Canada and the fighting in the South.Identify the events leading to the end of the War of 1812.
43 Terms and People nationalism – pride in one’s country war hawk – one who is eager for war; specifically, an American who favored war with Britain in 1812blockade – the action of shutting a port or road to prevent people or supplies from coming into an area or leaving itOliver Hazard Perry – commander of American troops that fought the British on Lake Erie in 1812
44 Terms and People (continued) Andrew Jackson – took command of American forces in Georgia in the summer of 1813secede – to withdraw
45 What were the causes and effects of the War of 1812? Tension with Britain was high when James Madison took office in 1809.Britain armed Native Americans…American anger toward Britain…and continued impressment of U.S. sailors.
46 Many Americans felt a new sense of American nationalism at this time. In 1810, nationalists Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun joined the House of Representatives.They and their supporters were called war hawks. They supported war with Britain.
47 Relations with Britain worsened steadily in early 1812. The British vowed to continue impressment.In June 1812, Congress declared war on Britain.Native Americans began new attacks on settlers.
48 The war did not come at a good time for the British, who were still at war in Europe. AmericaBritainFranceHowever, Britain refused to meet American demands to avoid war.
49 Americans were confident that they would win the war. However, the U.S. was not prepared. Jefferson’s spending cuts had weakened the military.The navy had only 16 warships ready for action.The army had fewer than 7,000 soldiers.
50 The War of 1812 was fought on several fronts. One important area was along the Atlantic coast.
51 In August 1812, the USS Constitution defeated the British warship Guerrière in the North Atlantic. The ship’s thick wooden hull earned it the nickname “Old Ironsides.”
52 Despite the victory of the Constitution, Britain was able to set up a blockade of the American coast.Britain had closed off all American ports by the war’s end.
53 The Great Lakes and the Mississippi River were also important fronts.
54 Both sides won key battles during the war in the West. In July 1812, the British defeated American troops in Canada. They captured over 2,000 U.S. soldiers.In 1813, U.S. troops led by Oliver Hazard Perry won control of Lake Erie at the Battle of Put-In-Bay.
55 Oliver Hazard Perry’s victory at Lake Erie was a key victory for the Americans. The British were forced to retreat back into Canada.U.S. troops pursued and defeated the British in the Battle of the Thames.
56 Native Americans suffered defeat both in Canada and in the South. The treaty that ended the fighting forced the Creeks to give up millions of acres of land.In March 1814, U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson defeated Creek warriors at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, in Georgia.
57 In 1814, the British defeated Napoleon. BritainAmericaBritainFranceThis allowed Britain to send many more troops to fight against America.
58 As the war dragged on, Federalists expressed their opposition by calling it “Mr. Madison’s War.” Many New Englanders opposed the war, because the British blockade was hurting their trade.
59 In 1814, opposition was so high that delegates at the Hartford Convention suggested that New England secede from the United States.United StatesNew England
60 The British made their final attacks in 1814. In August 1814, they attacked Washington, D.C.The President fled; the capitol was burned.On September 13, they moved on to Fort McHenry in Baltimore.Americans won this battle, which also inspired the U.S. national anthem.
61 Britain had tired of war Britain had tired of war. On Christmas Eve, 1814 the two sides signed the Treaty of Ghent.Treaty of GhentBefore this news reached the U.S., Americans won a final victory in the Battle of New Orleans in January 1815.Ended the warReturned things to the way they had been before the war
62 Effects of the End of the War of 1812 The Hartford Convention ended quickly.Americans felt pride and confidence.The United States had secured independence from Britain once and for all.
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