Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 The Judicial Branch"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 7 The Judicial Branch American Civics4/21/2017Chapter 7 The Judicial BranchSection 1: Equal Justice Under the LawSection 2: The Federal Court SystemSection 3: The Supreme CourtChapter 7
2 The rights of all U.S. citizens are protected by laws and the courts. Section 1: Equal Justice Under the LawThe Main IdeaThe rights of all U.S. citizens are protected by laws and the courts.Reading FocusIn what ways is the United States a nation of laws?What are the four sources of law in the United States?What roles do the courts play in the United States?
3 Laws Section 1: Equal Justice Under the Law 2 types of laws: Criminal law and civil lawCrime: behavior that is illegal b/c society considers the behavior harmfulCriminal law: refers to the group of laws that define what acts are crimesdescribes how a person accused should be tried and punished
4 Laws Civil laws: group of laws that refer to disputes between people. Contract disputes, divorce proceedings, property boundaries
5 Four types of U.S. laws: Section 1: Equal Justice Under the Law Statutory law (statutes)—passed by lawmaking bodiesRepresent majority ruleCommon law—judges’ decisions based on common sense, experience, and practice (precedent)Administrative law—created by government agencies (similar to statutory laws)Health, safety, education, banking, etcConstitutional law—based on the Constitution and its interpretation by the CourtGideon vs. Wainwright: free legal aid
6 Role of the Courts in the United States Section 1: Equal Justice Under the LawRole of the Courts in the United StatesUse law to settle disputesAssure equal justice for all through fair trials.RepresentationCriminal cases: Right to confront the accuser and jury trialAlways innocent until proven guiltyAppeal process: person asks a higher court to review the result of the trial
7 provide fair public trials ensure equal justice for all SECTION 1Question: What roles do the courts play in the United States?The Roles that Courts Playprovide fair public trialsensure equal justice for all
8 Section 2: The Federal Court System The Main IdeaThe federal court system consists of the three levels of courts, each of which has specific duties.Reading FocusWhat is the purpose of the U.S. district courts?How are the U.S. courts of appeals different from the district courts?What is the role of the Supreme Court?
9 Cases tried in the federal courts: Section 2: The Federal Court SystemCases tried in the federal courts:Cases involving people charged with disobeying the Const.Charges brought by a foreign country against the U.S. or its citizensCrimes committed on U.S. ships at sea
10 Cases tried in the federal courts: (continued) Section 2: The Federal Court SystemCases tried in the federal courts: (continued)Ambassadors and consuls charged with breaking laws in a foreign countryCrimes committed on certain federal propertiesDisagreements between the statesLawsuits between citizens of different states
11 Organization of Federal Courts Section 2: The Federal Court SystemOrganization of Federal Courts3 levels of federal courts.1. U.S. Supreme Court2. U.S. court of appeals (each circuit has its own court of appeals)3. U.S. district courts in all states (lowest level)94 district courts divided into 12 judicial circuits2 types of jurisdiction (authority)Appellateoriginal
12 U.S. Federal DistrictsDistrict or Trial courts – original jurisdiction (hear and decide a case for the first time)Only court trials are heldOnly court where jury trials are heldCannot hear appeals from other courts“local” courts – at least 1 district court in each state
13 U.S. District Judges Federal District judges are trial judges Conduct civil and criminal trials w/or w/out juriesAppointed for life by the president and must be approved by the SenateRemoved only by impeachment by Congress and the salary cannot be loweredProtects judges from punishment for decisions
14 Court of AppealsAppellate jurisdiction (power to review decisions made by lower courts)Do not hold trials – review the records of district ct. trials and hear arguments by the lawyers of both sidesThey determine if the original trial was fair and if the law was interpreted correctlyJudges reach a decision by majority voteMay send the case back for a new trial/uphold the decision
15 Role of the Supreme Court Section 2: The Federal Court SystemRole of the Supreme CourtHighest court in the landReviews cases from lower federal courts and state courts9 justices/judges – cannot be appealedConstitutional jurisdiction over:diplomatic representatives from other countriesdisputes between statesdisputes between states and federal government
16 Question: Which cases are tried in federal courts? SECTION 2Question: Which cases are tried in federal courts?Federal Court Cases1. constitutional violations2. U.S. treaty violations3. congressional law violations4. cases between a foreign government and a U.S. citizen or the government5. crimes committed on U.S. ships at sea6. cases involving U.S. ambassadors and consuls who broke laws in their stationed countries7. crimes committed on certain types of federal property8. disagreements between states or citizens of different states
17 Section 3: The Supreme Court The Main IdeaThe Supreme Court hears appeals, reviews laws, and strongly influences American society.Reading FocusWhat is the power of the judicial review?What are the constitutional checks on the Supreme Court’s powers?How has the Supreme Court strengthened constitutional rights?
18 Process through which cases are tried in the Supreme Court: Section 3: The Supreme CourtProcess through which cases are tried in the Supreme Court:Thousands of cases are appealed to the Court each year.One hundred to 200 cases are selected for the docket.Selected cases contain significant public interest or questions.Four out of nine justices must vote to hear a case.Previous verdicts stand for rejected cases.
19 Supreme Court justices Section 3: The Supreme CourtSupreme Court justicesAre appointed by the president and approved by a Senate majority vote.Are appointed for life but may be impeached.
20 Judicial review has strengthened the Court’s power. Section 3: The Supreme CourtJudicial review has strengthened the Court’s power.Courts decide if a law or presidential action is constitutional.Supreme Court has the ultimate power of judicial review.
21 Congress can limit the Court’s power. Section 3: The Supreme CourtCongress can limit the Court’s power.Can rewrite laws to make them constitutionalCan amend the Constitution to include new laws
22 SECTION 3Question: How has judicial review strengthened the Supreme Court’s power, and how does Congress limit this power?Judicial ReviewCongressLimitCongress may pass a similar law abiding by the Constitution or may try to amend the Constitution.StrengthenIt asserted the Court’s power to declare laws of Congress and presidential acts unconstitutional.
23 Chapter 7 Wrap-Up1. Describe the types of laws that exist in the United States.2. What services do U.S. courts provide?3. Which cases are tried in federal courts?4. How is the federal court system organized?5. How are appointments made to the Supreme Court, and how long do justices serve?6. How does the Supreme Court limit Congress’s power, and how does Congress reassert it?