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Poverty Population: Challenge and Opportunities

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1 Poverty Population: Challenge and Opportunities
Dr. Dina Qahwaji

2 Introduction Malnutrition is the biggest risk factor for illness worldwide Some 2 billion people, mostly children and women, are lacking in one or more of these three major micronutrients: Iron Iodine Vitamin A Dr. Dina Qahwaji

3 Mapping Poverty & Undernutrition
Food insecurity was once viewed as a problem of overpopulation and not enough food production but now is viewed as problem of poverty Food is available but not accessible to the poor who have neither land nor money Dr. Dina Qahwaji

4 Malnutrition that comes from living with food insecurity is one of the major factor influence life expectancy Chronic poverty often face unsafe drinking water, infection with worms, not enough food, low protein diet, stunted growth, low birth-weight, shorten lifespan and death Dr. Dina Qahwaji

5 Malnutrition & health worldwide
30% of the world’s population experience some form of malnutrition 10.6 m children under 5 years old die each year from worms and infectious diseases associated with poverty Dr. Dina Qahwaji

6 Dr. Dina Qahwaji

7 Circle of Malnutrition
At least 75% of all child death are caused by disease associated with poor nutrition that caused by poverty Malnutrition Body can’t digest food Diarrhea Body doesn’t get enough food Source: UNICEF

8 More than 150 m children in developing countries suffer from malnutrition
Malnutrition may result from lack of food energy or from lack of food energy and protein Dr. Dina Qahwaji

9 Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is most widespread form of malnutrition in the world today
Children who are thin for their height – suffering from acute PEM Children who are short for their age – suffering from chronic PEM Dr. Dina Qahwaji

10 Malnutrition and Health Worldwide – PEM
PEM includes the classifications of kwashiorkor and marasmus. Kwashiorkor is a protein deficiency disease. Marasmus is a deficiency disease caused by poor food intake. Dr. Dina Qahwaji

11 Dr. Dina Qahwaji

12 Micronutrient deficiencies
Vitamin A deficiency: World’s most common cause of preventable child blindness and poor vision More than 100 m children are affected by vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Of these, 500,000 children become partially or totally blind as a result of not enough vitamin A in the diet Dr. Dina Qahwaji

13 Micronutrient deficiencies
Iron deficiency: Anemia Anemia is estimated to affect some 2 billion people Iron deficiency in infant and early childhood is associated with decreased abilities and resistance to disease Dr. Dina Qahwaji

14 Micronutrient deficiencies
Iodine deficiency: Cause high levels of goiter and child retardation The major preventable cause of mental retardation worldwide, is a risk factor for both physical and mental retardation in about 1 billion people. Dr. Dina Qahwaji

15 Effect of Malnutrition
When nutrient need are high and food is limited, the risk of Undernutrition increase Infant mortality rate range from 5 in developed countries to over 166 in the poorest countries Infants can be the first to show the sign of underweight due to their high nutrient need Dependent group Maternal mortality rate range from 12 in industrial counties to 1,100 in Sub-Saharan Africa Dr. Dina Qahwaji

16 Poverty lead to hunger in many important ways
Poverty lead to hunger in many important ways. People who are poor are powerless to change their situation because they have little access to very important resources such as education, training, food and health services. Dr. Dina Qahwaji

17 Malnutrition and Health Worldwide
The Economic Burden of Malnutrition and Hunger The burden of hunger includes both direct... maternal complications in pregnancy poor health of babies Malnutrition in children ...and indirect costs. lost output and income Dr. Dina Qahwaji

18 Nutrition and Development
The United Nations views a healthful, nutritious diet as a basic human right-one that the FAO and WHO are promised to secure Achieving improved nutritional well-being worldwide requires broad action on many issues, including the following: Ensuring that poor and malnourished have enough access to food Promoting healthful diet and lifestyles Dr. Dina Qahwaji

19 Protecting consumers through improved food quality and safety
Preventing and controlling infectious diseases by providing clean water, basis sanitation, and effective health care Protecting consumers through improved food quality and safety Preventing micronutrient deficiencies Assessing, analyzing, and global monitoring of the nutritional status of populations at risk Including nutrition objectives into development policies and programs Dr. Dina Qahwaji

20 Agenda for Action Focus on children Make the world fit for children
Focus on women Dr. Dina Qahwaji

21 Focus on Children Children are the group most strongly affected by poverty, malnutrition, and food insecurity. GOBI is a child survival plan set forth by UNICEF. GOBI - stands for growth charts, oral rehydration therapy, breast milk and immunization. GOBI has made outstanding progress in cutting the number of hunger-related child deaths. Dr. Dina Qahwaji

22 Focus on Children Immunizations
Although current immunizations could prevent most of the 2 million deaths each year, enough protein nutrition is necessary for vaccinations. Dr. Dina Qahwaji

23 Making the World Fit for Children
UNICEF’s goals for nutrition and food security include the following: A 50% reduction in the 1990 levels of moderate to severe malnutrition among children under 5. A 50% reduction in the 1990 levels of low birth-weight infants. The elimination of blindness and other consequences of vitamin A deficiency. Dr. Dina Qahwaji

24 Focus on Women Women are at risk more than men to food insecurity and under-nutrition for a number of reasons. Women have increased nutrient needs during their childbearing years. Women are responsible for the physical labor required to get food for their families. Women may feed their husbands, children, and other family members first. Social beliefs may also limit women’s food intakes. Dr. Dina Qahwaji

25 International Nutrition Programs
In developing countries, emphasis has been placed on four types of nutrition interventions: Breastfeeding promotion programs. Nutrition education programs. Food fortification and/or the distribution of nutrient supplements. Special feeding programs designed to provide at risk groups with nutritious supplemental foods. Dr. Dina Qahwaji

26 International Nutrition Programs
In many countries, there is increasing evidence of progress in improving agricultural, water, education, and health services, especially for children. Dr. Dina Qahwaji

27 Agenda for Action what we can do ????
Appear that only worldwide political decision for problem address Personal action: can help the world through personal choices. We can find ways to reduce our consumption of the world’s resources by using only what we need Dr. Dina Qahwaji

28 In US, billion of dollars are spent annually to lower calories consumption, while more than 850 million people in the rest of the world can not often find an enough number of calories to consume Thus, choosing a diet at the level of need, rather than excess, would reduce the resources needs made by our industrial agriculture Dr. Dina Qahwaji

29 What we can do to improve our community??
Focus on children through growth monitoring, screening and nutrition education Promoting of breastfeeding Immunization Nutritional Program focusing on infant, children, and women nutrition Food distribution of nutrients supplements Dr. Dina Qahwaji

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