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© National Wildlife Federation, 2007 Slides adapted and edited from:

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1 © National Wildlife Federation, 2007 Slides adapted and edited from:

2 What is global warming?

3 How Global Warming Works Pollutant gases trap heat from leaving

4 The Sun’s energy passes through the car’s windshield. This energy (heat) is trapped inside the car and cannot pass back through the windshield, causing the inside of the car to warm up. Example of the Greenhouse Effect

5 Why is global warming happening?

6 Greenhouse gases include water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)water vaporcarbon dioxidemethanenitrous oxideozone chlorofluorocarbons Some of these come from natural sources, but many come from human (anthropogenic) activities

7 The main sources of greenhouse gases are: Water vapor : Can be produced from the evaporation of liquid water or from the sublimation of ice. Under typical atmospheric conditions, water vapor is continuously generated by evaporation and removed by condensation. Water vapor is lighter than air and triggers convection currents that can lead to clouds.

8 The main sources of greenhouse gases are: Carbon dioxide : Naturally found in our atmosphere, it is given off by organisms during cellular respiration. –Burning of fossil fuels and deforestation leads to higher CO 2 concentrations.fossil fuelsdeforestation –Land use change (mainly deforestation in the tropics) account for up to one third of total anthropogenic CO 2 emissions.

9 Burning of Fossil Fuels Pollution from coal, natural gas, and oil

10 The main sources of greenhouse gases are: Methane: naturally produced by Livestock (as digestive gas) and manure. Wet muddy areas are ideal for methanogenic bacteria, so rice paddy farming, land use and wetland changes contribute to CH 4 levels. Sewage gases and vented landfill emissions leading to higher atmospheric concentrations of CH 4.

11 The main sources of greenhouse gases are: Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Used in refrigeration systems (freon gas)refrigeration Used in fire suppression systems and extinguishers (halon gas).fire suppression Aerosol accelerants (gas in spray cans)

12 The main sources of greenhouse gases are: Nitrous oxide Agricultural activities, including the use of fertilizers, that lead to higher N 2 O concentrations.

13 What’s the difference between “global warming” and “climate change”?

14 Difference GLOBAL WARMING is the increase of the Earth’s average surface temperature due to a build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. CLIMATE CHANGE is a broader term that refers to long-term changes in climate, including average temperature and precipitation.

15 A Correlation? Changes in Weather Patterns Water temp changes combined with Warmer atmosphere throws off earth’s weather patterns! Expect more frequent and severe droughts, floods, and hurricanes Another example: –El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), results from a series of interactions between the atmosphere and the tropical ocean. –It has been hypothesized that global warming trends may increase both the frequency and duration of ENSO events. –Since 1976, there have been seven El Niños. Based on the most reliable records, which go back 120 years, we would have expected to see only five.

16 Severe weather events There also seems to be an increase in the frequency and severity of HURRICANE activity that correlates to climate change Katrina, 2005

17 Elevated greenhouse gas levels, has had a discernible influence on many physical and biological systems. Projected to impact various issues such as freshwater resources, industry, food and health.

18 Effects of Global Warming Increased Temperature Habitat Damage and Species Affected Changes in Water Supply Rising Sea Level

19 Desertification Desertification: conversion of semiarid land to desert 19 Excessive precipitation Excessive precipitation occurs in some places… …while in other places, too little precipitation is causing problems

20 Deforestation Less precipitation and warmer air temperature dries out the soil, making it difficult for vegetation to grow. Borneo map:

21 Negative Impact on Biodiversity Recent studies show that atmospheric CO 2 is being absorbed into the oceans, etc, making them more ACIDIC. This kills plankton, among other things. How might this affect the oceanic ecosystem?

22 What’s the proof that global warming is taking place?

23 Portage Glacier 19142004 Alaska Photos: NOAA Photo Collection and Gary Braasch –

24 Colorado River Arizona June 2002Dec 2003

25 When did global warming start?

26 Global Atmospheric Concentration of CO 2

27 Human population growth

28 How is global warming measured?

29 Ice Core Data CO 2 Measurements Before 1958 - Antarctica

30 Ice Core Data Graph of CO 2 (Green graph), temperature (Blue graph), and dust concentration (Red graph) measured from the Vostok, Antarctica ice core as reported by Petit et al., 1999. Higher dust levels are believed to be caused by cold, dry periods.Vostok, Antarcticaice core

31 CO 2 Atmospheric Measurements CO 2 Measurements Since 1958 – Mauna Loa, Hawaii

32 Temperature (Northern Hemisphere) CO 2 Concentrations 1000 Years of CO 2 and Global Warming Degree Celsius Increase Parts Per Million Year 100012001400160018002000 100012001400160018002000

33 April 2009 in the news : Here’s an inconvenient truth: A bridge to the Wilkins ice shelf, an Antarctic peninsula the size of Jamaica, has shattered. Scientists think the shelf is now on the brink of breaking away, a development that could be a direct effect of global warming in this part of Antarctica. Temperatures in Antarctica have risen up to 5.4 degrees Fahrenheit in the past 50 years, and shattering ice there has a big effect on sea levels worldwide. Read it at BBC News

34 Projections

35 We can stop global warming!

36 2007 Goal: Reductions in CO 2 Per Year Billions of Metric Tons Carbon

37 2007 Reductions in CO 2 Per Year Gigaton Carbon Produce electricity efficiently Use electricity efficiently Vehicle efficiency Solar and Wind Power Biofuels Carbon capture and storage Billions of Metric Tons Carbon Our Goal

38 What’s being done now to reduce our emissions? Solar PowerWind PowerFuel-Efficiency

39 What can you do to help solve the problem?

40 Simple Things To Do Turn off your computer or the TV when you’re not using it. Take shorter showers. Heating water uses energy. Keep rooms cool by closing the blinds, shades, or curtains. Turn off the lights when you leave a room. Use compact fluorescent bulbs.

41 Be Bulb Smart—Use CFLs Incandescent Compact Fluorescent 75% less energy used, lasts 10 x longer What’s the difference? 1,430 lbs. CO 2 pollution avoided $30 saved

42 Simple Things To Do Dress lightly when it’s hot instead of turning up the air conditioning. Or use a fan. Dress warmly when it’s cold instead of turning up the heat. Offer to help your parents keep the air filters on your AC and furnace clean. Walk short distances instead of asking for a ride in the car. Plant a tree. Recycle.

43 © National Wildlife Federation, 2007

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