2 Sentence Structurep. 122Sentences have a hierarchical organization, i.e.,the words in a sentence are grouped into naturalUnits, called constituents.
3 The tree diagram A structure tree is used to represent graphically the constituent structure of a phrase or aSentence.
4 Constituents pp. 122-124 1. definition: natural groupings of a phrase or sentence2. Every sentence in a language is associated withone or more constituent structures. If asentence has more than one constituentstructure, it is structurally ambiguous, andeach tree will correspond to one of the possiblemeanings.
5 Example:I bought an antique desk suitable for a ladywith thick legs and large drawers.Two phrase structure trees:[a lady with thick legs and large drawers][[a desk for a lady] [with thick legs and large drawers]]
6 Constituency testspTests to reveal the constituents of a sentence:The “stand alone” testThe “replacement by a pronoun” testThe “move as a unit” test
7 Syntactic categories 詞類 p. 1241. definition:a family of expressions that can substitute for one another without loss of grammaticality2. also called ‘grammatical categories’ or ‘parts of speech’3. Kinds: (a) lexical categories(b) phrasal categories
8 (a) lexical categories p. 126Noun (N)Verb (V)Adjective (Adj)Adverb (Adv)Preposition (P)Conjunction (Conj)Determiner (Det)Auxiliary verb (Aux)** Functional categories: Conj ,Det, Aux
9 Determiners (Det) 限詞 (a) articles: a, an, the (b) demonstratives (指示詞):this, that, these, those, …(c) quantifiers (量詞):each, every, one, all,…(d) possessive case of nouns and pronouns:my, his, John’s, …
10 Auxiliary verbs (Aux)助動詞 (a) modal auxiliaries (語氣助動詞):can, may, shall, will, …(b) helping verbs:be in passives (be + p.p.) andprogressives (be + v-ing)do in negatives and emphatic sentenceshave in perfect (have, has, had + p.p.)
12 Phrase structure trees (PS trees) The PS tree:(1) The PS tree is a phrase structure tree diagramwhich provides labels (syntactic categoryinformation) for each of the constituents of asentence; it is also called a constituent structure tree.(2) A PS tree can represent every sentence of Englishand of every human language.(3) PS trees are explicit graphic (圖像式)representations of a speaker’s knowledge of thestructure of the sentences of his language.
13 Three aspects of speakers’ syntactic knowledge represented in PS trees (a) The linear order of the words in the sentence(b) The groupings of words into syntacticcategoriesThe hierarchical structure of the syntactic
14 Example (1) (p. 127) The child found the puppy. SNP VPDet N V NPDet NThe child found the puppy
15 Example (2): (p. 130) The puppy played in the garden. SNP VPDet N V PPP NPDet NThe puppy played in the garden
16 Example (3): (p. 130) The professor said that the student passed the exam. NP VPDet N V CPC SNP VPDet N V NPDet NThe professor said that the student passed the exam
17 Relationships within a PS tree Where categories meet is a node.Every higher node dominates all the other categories beneath it.A node immediately dominates the categories one level below it.Categories that are immediately dominated by the same node are sisters.
18 PS rules p. 131 1. S → NP VP 2. NP → Det N 3. VP → V NP 4. VP → V 5. VP → V PP6. PP → P NP7. VP → V CP8. CP → C S
19 p. 132Draw tree diagrams for the following sentences:1. The boys left.2. The wind blew the kite.3. The senator hopes that the bill passes.