2 What is a Method?A particular procedure for accomplishing or approaching something, especially a systematic or established one.The method in this course means principles and techniques employed to teach a foreign language.Method composed of both the principles and techniques.What are the principles?
3 What is a method? Cont….Principles involve five aspects of second or foreign language teaching.The teacherThe learnerThe teaching processThe learning processThe target language/culture
5 Review of Lecture 1 Introduction to TEFL Introduction to Language teaching methodsScope of TEFLOverview of the contents
6 Definition"a method of foreign or second language teaching which makes use of translation and grammar study as the main teaching and learning activities.“Old name: Classical Method
7 BackgroundThe Grammar Translation Method was the traditional way Latin and Greek were taught in Europe.In the 19th century it began to be used to teach “modern” languages such as French, German, and English, and it is still used in some countries today.
8 Purpose Help students read and appreciate foreign language literature Study grammar of the target languageBetter understand grammar of the native language through familiaritySpeak and write their native language betterIntellectual growth through grammar exercises
9 Sample GTM Class Level of students: high intermediate Strength: 42 Class duration: 2hrs thrice a weekSetting: ColumbiaMother tongue: Spanish
10 Proceedings Reading a literary passage of English ‘life on the Mississippi’ by Mark TwainTranslation from English to MTWord meanings English to MTOral comprehension discussion in MTTeacher provides answers and meanings to difficult itemsWritten Comprehension question answers in EnglishTeacher determines if the answer is correct or not.Focus on finding the CORRECT answer
11 … proceedingsFor a given list of English words, students are asked to locate antonyms from the text.Grammar Rule for the use of Direct object read by teacherExamples are provided by the teacherStudents identify separable and inseparable phrasal verbs from the text.Students fill in the blanks in the given sentences with a list of phrasal verbs.First two items done collectively, rest separately
12 … proceedingsHome assignment: Memorization of translation of list of English phrasal verbs and idioms, sentence formation based on English vocabulary listFollow up classes agendaTranslationDirect object rule memorizationPractice of grammar rulesUse of irregular verb forms and memorization of list of verbsComposition writing about students ambitionTranslation from Spanish to English
13 Summary of Lecture 2GTMDefinitionPurposeProceeding
14 Lecture 3 Review of previous lecture GTMDefinitionPurposeproceedingsPrinciples of GTM (concept, theory, rules, regulations)Techniques of GTM (What is being taught, how it is being taught, what exercise used, what activities used, how class is conducted)Flaws of GTM
15 What is a principle? Abstract and underlying rules and regulations Conceptual details/ Theoretical details of a subjectA principle determines techniques used in the classExample:Principle: MemorizationTechnique: class room learning of verb forms list
17 Principles of GTM 1: What are the goals of teachers using GTM? Develop ability to read foreign language literaturelearning grammar rulesLearning foreign language vocabularyStudying foreign language is good for student mental exercise
18 2: Role of teacher in GTM Traditional Authoritative Provider of knowledgeStudents do what he/she asks them to.
19 3: Characteristics of teaching/learning process Translation from one language to anotherStudy of culture and literature of target language communityDeductive study of grammar: rules first, followed by practice of rules (general to particular)Grammatical paradigms memorization such as verb forms/ conjugationsMemorization of vocabulary lists
21 4: Nature of student-teacher interaction Most of interaction is teacher-student interactionLittle or no student-student interactionNo pair work, no discussion, no group workOnly individual workFeelings of students not dealt with
22 5: How is language/ culture viewed? Literary language is considered superior to spoken languageFocus on teaching only the language of literatureCulture of foreign language community through their literature and art
23 6: Which language skills are emphasized? VocabularyGrammarReading skills: literary text readingWriting skills : comprehension questions and composition writing
24 7: What is the role of students’ native language? Language of classroom interaction between teacher and studentsLanguage used for understanding and translating the foreign language text
25 8: How is evaluation accomplished? Written tests focusing on translation from one language to the otherQuestions about foreign language cultureQuestions on the application of foreign language grammar rules.
26 9: Teacher’s response to student errors Correction is emphasized/ appreciatedErrors as unnecessary and signs of failureAccuracy to be attainedTeacher knows the RIGHT answer
27 Review of Techniques of GTM What is a technique?What is being taught.How it is taught.What activities used.What exercises done.
28 1. Translation of Literary passage Reading Skills emphasizedLiterary text as core text for grammar and vocabulary practiceTeacher may pick a literary passageTeacher may write a passage for grammar and vocabulary practiceTranslation may be spoken or writtenPhrasal verbs and idioms not to be literally translated by meaningfully understood in mother tongueTo kick the bucket
29 2: Reading Comprehension Questions Purpose: to check understanding of the passageFirst type of questions: information questions from the textWhen did Mark Twain live?Second type of questions: Inference questions based on understanding of the passageDo you think the boy was ambitious? Why or why not?Third type of questions: Related the passage to the personal experienceHave you ever thought of running away from home?
30 3: Antonyms/ SynonymsStudents given a set of words and asked to search antonyms from the textStudents given a set of words and asked to search synonyms from the textDefine difficult words from the textOther vocabulary exercises
31 4: CognatesStudents are taught to recognize the spellings or sound patterns which are similar in foreign language and mother tongueEnglish word ‘Possibility (-ty)Spanish word ‘Posibilidad (-dad)
32 Cont… 5: Deductive application of rules 6: Fill in the blanks : use of prepositions, verbs, helping verbs, pronouns and other vocabulary exercises7: Memorization: vocabulary lists, rules, conjugations,8: Sentence formation9: composition: writing exercise that makes use of words and structures learned from the text and bringing students personal experience in class
33 Flaws of GTM Explicit grammar rule based teaching Focus on memorization rather than meaningful learningSpeaking and listening skills ignoredPronunciation ignored, fluency ignoredNo communication/ interaction encouragedTeacher oriented classesStudents feelings and pace of learning ignoredStudents not having freedom in language practiceFocus on accuracy and correctness
34 Factors that lead to the rejection of Grammar-Translation Method: A. Increased opportunities for communication among Europeans created a demand for oral proficiency in foreign languages.B. Language teaching specialists also turned their attention to the way modern languages were being taught in secondary schools.C. New approaches to language teaching were developed by individual language teaching specialists.
35 Summary of Lecture 3Principles of GTMTechniques of GTMFlaws of GTM