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Grammar Translation Method

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1 Grammar Translation Method
Lecture 2

2 What is a Method? A particular procedure for accomplishing or approaching something, especially a systematic or established one. The method in this course means principles and techniques employed to teach a foreign language. Method composed of both the principles and techniques. What are the principles?

3 What is a method? Cont…. Principles involve five aspects of second or foreign language teaching. The teacher The learner The teaching process The learning process The target language/culture

4 Grammar Translation Method:

5 Review of Lecture 1 Introduction to TEFL
Introduction to Language teaching methods Scope of TEFL Overview of the contents

6 Definition "a method of foreign or second language teaching which makes use of translation and grammar study as the main teaching and learning activities.“ Old name: Classical Method

7 Background The Grammar Translation Method was the traditional way Latin and Greek were taught in Europe. In the 19th century it began to be used to teach “modern” languages such as French, German, and English, and it is still used in some countries today.

8 Purpose Help students read and appreciate foreign language literature
Study grammar of the target language Better understand grammar of the native language through familiarity Speak and write their native language better Intellectual growth through grammar exercises

9 Sample GTM Class Level of students: high intermediate Strength: 42
Class duration: 2hrs thrice a week Setting: Columbia Mother tongue: Spanish

10 Proceedings Reading a literary passage of English
‘life on the Mississippi’ by Mark Twain Translation from English to MT Word meanings English to MT Oral comprehension discussion in MT Teacher provides answers and meanings to difficult items Written Comprehension question answers in English Teacher determines if the answer is correct or not. Focus on finding the CORRECT answer

11 … proceedings For a given list of English words, students are asked to locate antonyms from the text. Grammar Rule for the use of Direct object read by teacher Examples are provided by the teacher Students identify separable and inseparable phrasal verbs from the text. Students fill in the blanks in the given sentences with a list of phrasal verbs. First two items done collectively, rest separately

12 … proceedings Home assignment: Memorization of translation of list of English phrasal verbs and idioms, sentence formation based on English vocabulary list Follow up classes agenda Translation Direct object rule memorization Practice of grammar rules Use of irregular verb forms and memorization of list of verbs Composition writing about students ambition Translation from Spanish to English

13 Summary of Lecture 2 GTM Definition Purpose Proceeding

14 Lecture 3 Review of previous lecture
GTM Definition Purpose proceedings Principles of GTM (concept, theory, rules, regulations) Techniques of GTM (What is being taught, how it is being taught, what exercise used, what activities used, how class is conducted) Flaws of GTM

15 What is a principle? Abstract and underlying rules and regulations
Conceptual details/ Theoretical details of a subject A principle determines techniques used in the class Example: Principle: Memorization Technique: class room learning of verb forms list

16 Principles:

17 Principles of GTM 1: What are the goals of teachers using GTM?
Develop ability to read foreign language literature learning grammar rules Learning foreign language vocabulary Studying foreign language is good for student mental exercise

18 2: Role of teacher in GTM Traditional Authoritative
Provider of knowledge Students do what he/she asks them to.

19 3: Characteristics of teaching/learning process
Translation from one language to another Study of culture and literature of target language community Deductive study of grammar: rules first, followed by practice of rules (general to particular) Grammatical paradigms memorization such as verb forms/ conjugations Memorization of vocabulary lists

20 Paradigm/conjugations

21 4: Nature of student-teacher interaction
Most of interaction is teacher-student interaction Little or no student-student interaction No pair work, no discussion, no group work Only individual work Feelings of students not dealt with

22 5: How is language/ culture viewed?
Literary language is considered superior to spoken language Focus on teaching only the language of literature Culture of foreign language community through their literature and art

23 6: Which language skills are emphasized?
Vocabulary Grammar Reading skills: literary text reading Writing skills : comprehension questions and composition writing

24 7: What is the role of students’ native language?
Language of classroom interaction between teacher and students Language used for understanding and translating the foreign language text

25 8: How is evaluation accomplished?
Written tests focusing on translation from one language to the other Questions about foreign language culture Questions on the application of foreign language grammar rules.

26 9: Teacher’s response to student errors
Correction is emphasized/ appreciated Errors as unnecessary and signs of failure Accuracy to be attained Teacher knows the RIGHT answer

27 Review of Techniques of GTM
What is a technique? What is being taught. How it is taught. What activities used. What exercises done.

28 1. Translation of Literary passage
Reading Skills emphasized Literary text as core text for grammar and vocabulary practice Teacher may pick a literary passage Teacher may write a passage for grammar and vocabulary practice Translation may be spoken or written Phrasal verbs and idioms not to be literally translated by meaningfully understood in mother tongue To kick the bucket

29 2: Reading Comprehension Questions
Purpose: to check understanding of the passage First type of questions: information questions from the text When did Mark Twain live? Second type of questions: Inference questions based on understanding of the passage Do you think the boy was ambitious? Why or why not? Third type of questions: Related the passage to the personal experience Have you ever thought of running away from home?

30 3: Antonyms/ Synonyms Students given a set of words and asked to search antonyms from the text Students given a set of words and asked to search synonyms from the text Define difficult words from the text Other vocabulary exercises

31 4: Cognates Students are taught to recognize the spellings or sound patterns which are similar in foreign language and mother tongue English word ‘Possibility (-ty) Spanish word ‘Posibilidad (-dad)

32 Cont… 5: Deductive application of rules
6: Fill in the blanks : use of prepositions, verbs, helping verbs, pronouns and other vocabulary exercises 7: Memorization: vocabulary lists, rules, conjugations, 8: Sentence formation 9: composition: writing exercise that makes use of words and structures learned from the text and bringing students personal experience in class

33 Flaws of GTM Explicit grammar rule based teaching
Focus on memorization rather than meaningful learning Speaking and listening skills ignored Pronunciation ignored, fluency ignored No communication/ interaction encouraged Teacher oriented classes Students feelings and pace of learning ignored Students not having freedom in language practice Focus on accuracy and correctness

34 Factors that lead to the rejection of Grammar-Translation Method:
A. Increased opportunities for communication among Europeans created a demand for oral proficiency in foreign languages. B. Language teaching specialists also turned their attention to the way modern languages were being taught in secondary schools. C. New approaches to language teaching were developed by individual language teaching specialists.

35 Summary of Lecture 3 Principles of GTM Techniques of GTM Flaws of GTM

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