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WORLD GEOGRAPHY December 5, 2014. Today Unit 9 (Industry and Service – Economic Geography) - Introduce Unit 10 (Human Environment)

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Presentation on theme: "WORLD GEOGRAPHY December 5, 2014. Today Unit 9 (Industry and Service – Economic Geography) - Introduce Unit 10 (Human Environment)"— Presentation transcript:

1 WORLD GEOGRAPHY December 5, 2014

2 Today Unit 9 (Industry and Service – Economic Geography) - Introduce Unit 10 (Human Environment)

3 How Industrial Production Has Changed Fordist : Dominant mode of mass production during the twentieth century, with production of consumer goods at a single site  Major focus was on the assembly line

4 How Industrial Production Has Changed Post-Fordist : Current mode of production with more flexible production practices. - Goods not mass produced - Production accelerated and dispersed around the globe - Multinational companies that shift production, outsourcing it around the world  Global Division of Labor

5 Time-Space Compression Improvements in transportation and communications technologies (distance is much less important) Many places in the world more connected than ever before

6 Effects of Time-Space Compression Just-in-time delivery: - Keeping just what is needed for short-term production - New parts shipped quickly when needed Global division of labor: Corporations drawing from labor around the globe for different components of production

7 Production of Televisions Three key elements in television production: 1. TV research and design  In the core regions 2. Manufacturing components (e.g. in China) (with more mechanization move to core countries) 3. Assembly Production of televisions has shifted across the world over time.

8 New Influences on Geography of Manufacturing - Transportation on industrial location e.g. Containerization in Rotterdam (break of bulk point/intermodal connection)

9 New Influences on Geography of Manufacturing - Regional and global trade agreements e.g. WTO, NAFTA, EU, US-Korea FTA

10 New Influences on Geography of Manufacturing - Energy in industrial location  Keystone pipeline (Canada – U.S.)


12 OPEC Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries

13 New Influences on Geography of Manufacturing Core countries = high-tech Semi-periphery - ?? - e.g. Mexico, China, India Periphery = labor intensive

14 Deindustrialization - Process by which companies move industrial jobs to regions with cheaper labor.  Outsourcing - Newly deindustrialized region must switch to a service economy and work through a period of high unemployment e.g. Liverpool, UK

15 Deindustrialization – Detroit, U.S.




19 Newly industrialized: China

20 China: Major industrial growth after 1950 - Assisted by Soviet planners during the Cold War period Industrialization in the 1960s was state-planned: - focus on: Northeast district (Manchuria/Dongbei) & Shanghai and Chang Jiang district - China’s North East now a “rust belt”

21 Newly industrialized: China Today, industrialization in China is spurred by companies that move production (but not the whole company): - moving inland to take advantage of: 1. cheaper labor 2. special economic zones

22 Newly industrialized: China Effects on cultural landscape

23 Service Economy Types/Levels of industry: Primary – Located with the source of resources  e.g. fishing, mining, farming Secondary – Usually linked to manufacturing  e.g. builders, car manufacturing Tertiary – Service industries

24 Service Economy Service industry : - Economic activity associated with the provision of services: - Transportation - Banking - Retailing - Education - “Office jobs”

25 Service Economy Service industry : Quaternary industries: collection, processing, manipulation of information and capital - finance, administration, insurance, legal services Quinary industries: facilitate high-level decision making - scientific research, higher education

26 Geographical Dimensions of Service Econ. New influence on location: - Information technologies - Less tied to energy sources Market accessibility is more relevant for some companies, less so for others (role of telecommunications) - Presence of multi-national companies

27 Geographical Dimensions of Service Econ. Existence of a large multi-national company’s headquarters can affect the cultural landscape of the location. E.g. Walmart’s headquarters in Bentonville, Arkansas - companies who want to negotiate with Walmart must do so at the Walmart Home Office (headquarters) - companies have locations in and around Bentonville

28 Geographical Dimensions of Service Econ.



31 Modern production Outsourcing: Moving individual steps in the production process (of a good or a service) to a supplier, who focuses their production and offers a cost savings Offshore: Outsourced work that is located outside of the country

32 High-technology Corridors e.g. Silicon Valley (California, U.S.A.)

33 High-technology Corridors An area designated by local or state government to benefit from: - lower taxes - high-technology infrastructure - agglomeration Goal: provide high-technology jobs to the local population

34 Technopole An area planned for high technology with agglomeration built on a synergy among technological companies - Often close to universities e.g. Route 128, near Boston (U.S.)

35 Technopole Technopark Stellenbosch (South Africa)

36 Technopole Shenzhen High-tech Industrial Park (Shenzhen, China)

37 Technopole Daedeok Science Town (Innopolis) (Daejeon, South Korea)

38 Unit 10: Human Environment Key aspects: - How the Earth’s environment has changed over time - How humans have impacted Earth’s environment - Major factors contributing to environmental change today - How humans are responding to environmental change

39 Linfen, China “The most polluted place on Earth”

40 Next Class - Continue Unit 10 (Human Environment)

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