Presentation on theme: "Ultrasonic Cavitation and Piezonuclear Reactions"— Presentation transcript:
1 Ultrasonic Cavitation and Piezonuclear Reactions Cardone Fabio1, Cherubini Giovanni3, Mignani Roberto2, 4, Perconti Walter5, Pessa Eliano6, Petrucci Andrea1, 4, Rosetto Francesca3, Spera Guido7 1Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (ISMN — CNR) 2GNFM, Istituto Nazionale di Alta Matematica “F.Severi” 3ARPA Radiation Laboratories 4Dipartimento di Fisica “E.Amaldi” , Università degli Studi “Roma Tre” 5Climate and Applied Meteorology, ISPRA, 6Centro Interdipartimentale di Scienze Cognitive, Università di Pavia, Pavia, Italy 7CRA - IS.Pa.Ve., Chemical SectionSOPO20128th International Symposium on CavitationSingapore, 13th - 16th August 2012
2 Piezonuclear Reactions: Nuclear Reactions induced by Pressure Pressure suitably exerted on medium or heavy weight stable nuclides generates nuclear reactions of new type with clear and reproducible emission of neutrons.What does pressure suitably excerted mean?Piezonuclear Reactions and Deformed Special RelativityPiezonuclear Reactions are predicted by the phenomenological theory called Deformed Special Relativity (DSR) (F. Cardone, R. Mignani)1DSR states that piezonuclear reactions are triggered if in a experiment involving - medium or heavy weight stable nuclides one succeeds in concentrating an amount of energy E greater than GeV in a microscopical region of space V smaller than a threshold volume V and in an interval of time t shorter than a threshold interval t0
3 Compressing mechanism Concentrate E > GeVin a microscopical space V < V0in an interval of time t < t0How do we translate these conditionsinto experiment ?Compressing mechanismA compressing mechanism is neededcapable ofconcentrating and hence amplifying(E > GeV) energy densityby squeezing heavy or medium weightstable nuclidesinto a decreasing volume (V < V0)Catastrophic collapsefollowed bya sudden, quick and catastrophic mechanismcapable of a further compressionthat releases instantaneously (t < t0)the loaded energy onto the entrapped nuclides
4 Cavitation as source of compression and catastrophic collapse If pressure excerted on a liquid falls below the liquid vapour pressure, vapour bubbles form, conversely a rapid increase of pressure brings about a violent collapse of these bubbles.These phenomena are known to pit metals and are source of corrosion.The pitted surface of metals indicates that the collapse of bubbles induced by a sudden increase of pressure manages to concentrate in small volumes a great amount of energy, i.e. to create particularly high energy density conditions.
5 Ultrasonic Cavitation experiments and their piezonuclear evidences
6 First set of experiments (1999) Cavitation of water - concentrations of elements Could cavitation of water change the concentration of the chemical elements contained in it?liquid: 100 ml bidistilled deionised H2O in optical flint glassultrasound device: with cooled transducers and sonotrode and stepped shaped titanium hornfrequency and power: 20 kHz 630 Wtime: 210 minutesanalyses of the concentration of elements (Z= 1 to 92) in water before and after cavitation bymass atomic absorptioncyclotron spectrometry (ICR-ion cyclotron resonance)mass spectrometryanalyses of the vacuum chamber of these instrumentsanalyses of possible contributions to concentration changes due to impuritiesfrom sonotrode tip, flint glass, dry residue of water samplesComparison of concentrations before and after cavitationdecrease of light elements and increase of heavy ones,uranium in particular
7 Second set of experiments (2001) Cavitation of water - concentrations of heavy elements Could cavitation bring about variations of the concentration of chemical elements contained in it?liquid: 30 ml bidistilled deionised H2O in pyrex vesselultrasound device: not cooled transducers and stepped shaped aluminium hornfrequency and power: 20 kHz 300 Wtime: 4 intervals of 10 munites of cavitation with cooling intervals of 15 minutes between any two of themanalyses of the concentration of elements (A= 210 to 270 amu) in water before (blank) and after cavitation plus analyses of the background (content of the vacuum chamber)Comparison of concentrations before and after cavitationIncrease in the mass rangeIncrease and then decrease in the mass range (radionuclides)
8 Third set of experiments (2002) Cavitation of water - concentrations of radionuclides Search for artificial radionuclidesliquid: 300 ml of bidistilled deionised H2O in pyrex beakerultrasound device: not cooled transducers and stepped shaped aluminium hornfrequency and power: 20 kHz 100 Wtime: intervals of 15 munites of cavitation followed by cooling intervals of 15 minutesanalyses of the concentration of elements (90 to 150 and 200 to 255 amu) in water before (blank), after and during cavitation byperistaltic pump that sucked water into anInducted Coupled Plasma (ICP) Mass Spectrometer (MS) (9000 °C)analyses of noise (vacuum chamber)analyses scanning times: 10 sec and 150 secAnalysis of the concentrations during cavitationthe ICP-MS identified a mass of amuwhose concentration cycled: appearance, increase, decrease, disappearance.Interpeted as a radionuclide with t1/2=12s Europium 138
9 To: Cavitation of solutions of elements and search for neutrons From: cavitation of bidistilled deionised water and search for changes of concentrationTo:Cavitation of solutions of elementsandsearch for neutrons
10 Neutrons only from Iron solutions after 40 minutes - no gamma rays Fourth set of experiments (2005)Cavitation of solutions - neutron search - bubble detectors Does the variation of concentration of elements in cavitation mean also emission of neutrons and gamma rays ?liquid: ml of 1 ppm solutions of Lithium, Aluminium, Iron (LiCl, AlCl3, FeCl3, Fe(NO)3) in bidistilled deionised H2O in bottles of Schott Duran Glassultrasound device: modified ultrasonic plastic welder with transducers and sonotrode cooled by cold compressed air and a steel conical frustum as hornfrequency and power: 20 kHz 100 Wtime: 90 minutes of continuous cavitationNeutrons only from Iron solutions after 40 minutes - no gamma rays
11 Fifth set of experiments (2006) Cavitation of solutions - neutron search - bubble detectors Does the variation of concentration of elements in cavitation mean also emission of neutrons and gamma?liquid: 250 ml of 1 ppm, 10 ppm solutions of Iron (FeCl3, Fe(NO)3) in bidistilled deionised H2O in bottles of Schott Duran Glassultrasound device: modified ultrasonic plastic welder with transducers and sonotrode cooled by cold compressed air and a steel conical frustum as hornfrequency and power: 20 kHz 100 W and 130 Wtime: 90 minutes of continuous cavitationDifferent neutron doses and dose rates for different concentrations of iron and different ultrasound powers no gamma rays
12 Different neutron doses and dose rates for different concentrations and different ultrasound powers Graph of graphsIn each single graph there is time on the horizontal axis and neutron dose (nSv) on the vertical axis.On the compound graph we have amplitude or power on the horizontal axis and concentration on the vertical axis.
13 Cavitation of solutions - neutron search - track detectors Fifth set of experiments (2006)Cavitation of solutions - neutron search - track detectorsliquid: 250 ml of 10 ppm solutions of Iron (FeCl3) in bidistilled deionised H2O in bottles of Schott Duran Glassfrequency and power: 20 kHz 130 Wtime: 90 minutes of continuous cavitationCR39 detectors and bubble detectorsCR39 detectors Neutron tracks from nuclear reactor and from cavitation of iron solution
14 Sixth set of experiments (2007) Cavitation of solutions - neutron search - BF3liquid: 250 ml of 1000 ppm solutions of Iron (FeCl3) in bidistilled deionised H2O in bottles of Schott Duran Glassfrequency and power: 20 kHz 113 Wtime: 90 minutes of continuous cavitation plus 90 with ultrasound offBursts of neutrons detected by the Boron Trifluoride detector
15 Burst of neutrons emitted by the solution of iron during cavitation Time coincidence of bursts of neutrons registered by BF3 and bubble detector
16 From liquids to solids Experimental evidences Cavitation is the experimental mean in order to bring about piezonuclear reactionsDuring bubble collapse iron atoms, entrapped in the liquid/vapour (gas) interface, get accelerated towards each otherBasic requirements: the presence of micro-cavities (bubbles) that transform an ultrasonic wave into a shock wave and presence of ironSolids, like iron-rich rocks or cast iron, do contain micro-cavities as wellCould we imagine that the same processes that happen during cavitation of liquids, as we have seen so far, might take place if we compressed solids?Experimental evidencesCompression by ultrasoundsof iron-rich rocks (Granite, Basalt) orof steel bars (that contain micro-cavities)produce cavitation that generates piezonuclear reactionswith emissions ofbursts of neutrons, transmutations and emission of alpha particleswithout any gamma raysIn both the liquid and solid states one might envisagea certain typical time, tm, for the migration of a molecule from one positionwithin the structure of the substance to a neighboring position; alternativelyone might consider this typical time as characterizing the migration of a “hole”or vacancy from one position to another within the structure. Then if thetypical time, t, associated with the applied force is small compared with tm, thesubstance will not be capable of permanent deformation during that processand will exhibit elasticity rather than fluidity. On the other hand if t tm thematerial will exhibit fluidity. Thus, though the conclusion is overly simplistic,one can characterize a solid as having a large tm and a liquid as having a smalltm relative to the order of magnitude of the typical time, t, of the appliedforce.ILLUSTRATION OFTENSILE STRENGTHFrenkel (1955) illustrates the potential tensile strength of a pure liquid by meansof a simple, but instructive calculation. Consider two molecules separated bya variable distance s. The typical potential energy, Φ, associated with theintermolecular forces has the form shown in Figure 1.3. Equilibrium occurs atthe separation, xo, typically of the order of 10−10m. The attractive force, F,between the molecules is equal to ∂Φ/∂x and is a maximum at some distance,x1, where typically x1/xo is of the order of 1.1 or 1.2. In a bulk liquid or solidthis would correspond to a fractional volumetric expansion, ΔV/Vo, of aboutone-third. Consequently the application of a constant tensile stress equal to thatFigure 1.3: Intermolecular potential.pertinent at x1 would completely rupture the liquid or solid since for x > x1 theattractive force is insufficient to counteract that tensile force. In fact, liquidsand solids have compressibility moduli, κ, which are usually in the range of 1010to 1011 kg/m s2 and since the pressure, p = −κ(ΔV/Vo), it follows that thetypical pressure that will rupture a liquid, pT , is −3×109 to −3×1010 kg/m s2.In other words, we estimate on this basis that liquids or solids should be able towithstand tensile stresses of 3 × 104 to 3 × 105 atmospheres! In practice solidsdo not reach these limits (the rupture stress is usually about 100 times less)because of stress concentrations; that is to say, the actual stress encountered atcertain points can achieve the large values quoted above at certain points evenwhen the overall or globally averaged stress is still 100 times smaller. In liquidsthe large theoretical values of the tensile strength defy all practical experience;this discrepancy must be addressed.
17 Conclusions and remarks It exists cavitation and it exists Nuclear CavitationE > GeV , V < V0 , t < t0crucial dimensions and crucial reciprocal position of the sonotrode and the cavitation chamber (no ultrasonic cleaners)no emission of neutrons before 40 minutes (unless you use solids)THESE neutrons are difficult to be measuredanisotropic bursts are very hard to be detected (by active detectors above all)bubble detectors like the ones we used (called DEFENDERS) are no more available from BTI and the available ones called (BD) are not sensitive enough for neutron emission from liquids, but they are good for neutron emisson from solidsalpha emissions are easier to be detectedbut not in liquids because alpha particles cannot escape from the cavitation chambersolids have to be used
19 Cavitation as source of compression and catastrophic collapse If pressure excerted on a liquid falls below the liquid vapour pressure, vapour bubbles form, conversely a rapid increase of pressure brings about a violent collapse of these bubbles.These phenomena are known to pit metals and are source of corrosion.The pitted surface of metals indicated that the collapse of bubbles induced by a sudden increase of pressure managed to concentrate in small volumes a great amount of energy, i.e. to create particularly high energy density conditions.If pressure excerted on a liquid falls below the liquid vapour pressure, vapour bubbles form, conversely a rapid increase of pressure brings about a violent collapse of these bubbles.These phenomena are known to pit metals and are source of corrosion.The pitted surface of metals indicated that the collapse of bubbles induced by a sudden increase of pressure managed to concentrate in small volumes a great amount of energy, i.e. to create particularly high energy density conditions.WARNING: Piezonuclear reactions are NOT SonofusionSonofusiontheory: sonofusion is thermonuclear fusion in a tiny region of space inside the collapsing bubble. Coulomb barrier is to be overcomePiezonuclear reactionstheory: Piezonuclear reactions have neither to do with fusion nor with fission. They are based on the concept of Local Lorentz Invariance breakdown space-time deformation. No Coulomb barrierphenomenology: sonofusion treats the walls of the bubble as a impermeable membrane.The bubble is a piston. Nuclear fuel is contained in the bubblephenomenology: the walls of the bubble are treated as a completely permeable membrane through which the content of the bubble can escape during collapse. Nuclear fuel is trapped in the wall of the bubble that behaves like an accelerator of heavy ions that are forcibly pushed against each otherexperiment: sonofusion is aimed at producing deuterium-deuterium fusion,experiment: The fuel of these reactions are basically all stable nuclides and in particular those whose binding energy per nucleon is, in absolute value, as close as possible to the maximum.
20 Further evidences from solids - ultrasound Cylindrical Bars: 20 cm high, 2 cm of diameter19 Watt transferred into the bar1 hour of application of ultrasound
21 Further evidences from solids continuous compression Compression by a servo-controlled press of specimens of granite and marble up brittle fracture
22 367.5 GeV easily reachable by adding the mass energy of the nuclides 367.5 GeV is enormous from a microscopical point of view and still very big from a macroscopical one because of the Avogadro constant100 J/s 6·1020 eV/s 6·1020 / NA 1·10-3 eV/s·atom367.5 GeV easily reachable by adding the mass energy of the nuclides