Presentation on theme: "International Development"— Presentation transcript:
1 International Development LQ’s for Development – chapter 91) Why does development vary among countries?2) Where are more and less developed countries distributed?3) How does development affect gender?4) Why do LDC’s face obstacles to development?The single most important geographic fact of development is its striking UNEVENNESS.1
2 Development indicators? Take notes under each column as we discuss! EconomicSocialDemographic
3 What is development? What does it mean to be developed? Developing?
4 Development: evolution, growth, expansion, enlargement, progress More Developed Country (MDC):have a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure. The criteria for evaluating the degree of economic development are gross domestic product (GDP), the per capita income,level of industrialization,amount of widespreadinfrastructure andgeneral standard of living.
5 Development: evolution, growth, expansion, enlargement, progress Less Developed Country (LDC):Meets three criteria:PovertyHuman resource weakness (poor nutrition, health, education and adult literacy)Economic vulnerability: unstable agricultural production, lacking exports of goods and services, and the percentage of population displaced by natural disasters
6 Human Development Index (HDI) Developed by the United Nations, the HDI combines several measures of development: life expectancy at birth, adjusted GDP per capita, and knowledge (schooling and literacy).
7 What Do We Mean By Development? Key Issue 1… The three objectives of developmentincreases in availability and improvements in the distribution of food, shelter, health, protection, etc.improvements in ‘levels of living,’ including higher incomes, more jobs, better education, etc.expansions in the range of economic and social choices available to individuals and nations
9 Measuring Development - HDI United Nations Development Program Overview 2005 Click for Animated GraphsEconomic IndicatorsGross Domestic Product (GDP, also GNIPP)Types of Work (Economic Sectors)Social IndicatorsEducation and LiteracyHealth and WelfareDemographic IndicatorsLife Expectancy ( years)Infant Mortality (<10 - >100 per thousand)Natural Increase ( %)
19 ECONOMIC INDICATORSPrimary sector: directly extract materials from Earth through agriculture, mining, fishing, and forestrySecondary sector: includes manufacturers that process, transform, and assemble raw materials into useful productsTertiary sector: involves the provision of goods and services to people in exchange for payment.
21 ECONOMIC INDICATORS**Quinary sector: jobs in health, education, research, government, retailing, tourism, and recreation.**Quaternary sector: jobs in business services such as trade, insurance, banking, advertising, and wholesaling.
22 ECONOMIC INDICATORSProductivity: value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it.Value added: gross value of the product minus the cost of raw materials and energy.Gross=total
23 ***New International Division of Labor!!!*** Why have primary and secondary jobs declined in MDC’s in recent years??? What are businesses doing?OUTSOURCING!What does AP call this?***New International Division of Labor!!!***
24 Social Indicators Access to healthcare 8% is spent on healthcare in MDC, 6% in LDCMDC = more calories per dayPublic healthcare: Obamacare (ACA), Europe’s healthcare systemSocial Security, public assistanceSanitation and utility (gas, power)servicesEducation and LiteracyAverage schooling years: 10 years in MDC’s, a couple years in LDC’sStudent/teacher ratio is twice as high in MDC’s
25 Measuring Development Social IndicatorsEducation and Literacy
26 Measuring Development Social IndicatorsHealth and Welfare
27 Demographic Indicators Life Expectancy: 60’s in LDC, 70’s MDCYoung people is 6 times higher than old people in LDCLiteracyInfant MortalityNIRCBRGII: Gender Inequality indexGDI: Gender related Development IndexGEM: Gender empowerment index
28 Key Issues 2 & 32: Where are more and less developed countries distributed?3: Where does level of development vary by gender?
30 Location of More and Less Developed Countries Development generally reflects a North-South split in the world.
31 GET OUT YOUR BOOK AND THE MAP FROM YESTERDAY!!!!!
32 Why the HDI? Read about your assignmed region and tell us something about it! Pages 301-309 MDCLDCAnglo-America: 0.94Western Europe: 0.93Eastern Europe: 0.80*Japan 0.94*South Pacific: 0.87Latin America: 0.80East Asia: 0.76Middle East: 0.68Southeast Asia 0.58South Asia: 0.58Sub-Saharan Africa: 0.51
34 3: Where does level of development vary by gender? Key Issues 33: Where does level of development vary by gender?
35 Let’s read the intro to Key Issue 3 on pg. 309.
36 Gender-Related Development Index GDI similar to HDI: separates men and womenCountry penalized for having disparities between men and women (ex: school enrollment)No country has a 1: complete gender equalityNorway highest again: 0.960U.S. high, but not very topSub-Saharan Africa lowest
37 Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) Compares the ability of women and men to participate in economic and political decision making.In both MDC’s and LDC’s women hold less economic and political positions than menCombines income and professional jobs (econ) and managerial jobs and elected jobs (polit)High: North America, North Europe, South PacificLow: Africa and Asia
39 Read in your book about each of the indicators for development and empowerment (pg ) and fill in the charts Girl Rising: watch as you read the article about he Top 10 worst places for women and work on the handoutPeruNepal
40 We will wrap up tomorrow with Key Issue 4 We will wrap up tomorrow with Key Issue 4. Please read it tonight and complete the handout that goes with it in your packet.…packet time.
41 Why Do Less Developed Countries Face Obstacles to Development? Key Issue 4Why Do Less Developed Countries Face Obstacles to Development?
42 Strategies for International Development Self-Sufficiency Model (Balanced Growth)Spread investment as equally as possible.Set barriers that limit imports/ limit international trade.Mexico and IndiaProblems = Inefficiency/ lack of advancement and large bureaucracy.International Trade Model (Economic Growth)Rostow’s ModelWorld Bank lendingBasic Needs Model/Appropriate Technology ModelMicrolending (Grameen Bank, Kiva.org)Revolutionary/Radical Reform ModelCuba, U.S.S.R
43 Institutions of International Development United Nations - formed in 1945 to promote peace. 189 current members.World Bank - financial assistance and loans. Owned by 189 United Nations members.International Monetary Fund - arm of U.N. that surveys and oversees international money exchange to prevent monetary crises. Also provides loans and training to help countries with balance of payment problems.Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) - World Watch, Human Rights Watch, World Commission on Dams, Grameen Bank, Kiva.org, many others.
44 Rostow’s Model TRADITIONAL SOCIETY – Development not started yet American economist and political advisor during 1950s developed model, arguing that each country passes through five stages from traditional society to high mass consumption.TRADITIONAL SOCIETY – Development not started yetPRECONDITIONS FOR TAKE-OFF - elite group initiates economic innovations, leads to productivity and investments in infrastructure.TAKE-OFF - rapid growth in a number of specific economic activities, technical advances.DRIVE TO MATURITY - Modern technology diffuses to a wide variety of industries.AGE OF MASS CONSUMPTION - economy shifts from heavy industry (steel) to consumer goods (cars).
46 Examples of Int’l Trade Approach Four Asian DragonsLacking resources, they concentrated on manufactured goods.South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, and Hong Kong.Arabian Peninsula StatesPetroleum rich.Used revenue to fund large scale projects.
48 Problem’s with Rostow’s Model and the International Trade Approach Developmentalism: the idea that every country and region will eventually make economic progress toward “high mass consumption” provided that they compete to the best of their ability. This is not likely and is hard on the planet. WHY?Increased dependence on MDCs and their markets. Undue influence on many global policies, including those of the U.N. and World Bank.Market Stagnation: counting on selling to MDC’s can be risky… MDCs have very limited population growth. May force LDC’s to cut back on production of food, clothing, and other necessities.
49 Other Problems in International Development High Debt CountriesHostility Regarding World Bank and IMF Structural Adjustment ProgramsIMF “Free Market” Requirements for Loans and AssistanceWarfare and Instability Limit Foreign InvestmentCore-Periphery Relationships May Be Necessary for Economic GrowthWithin CountriesGlobally
50 High Debt CountriesLoans to LDCs by 2000 exceeded $2.1 trillion dollars. Interest payments consume some small economies, encouraging export earnings instead of internal improvements.
51 Warfare and Instability Limit Foreign Investment