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Principles of Animal Nutrition

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Presentation on theme: "Principles of Animal Nutrition"— Presentation transcript:

1 Principles of Animal Nutrition

2 Six functions of a good ration
Maintenance of vital body processes to keep animal alive Growth by increasing the size of bones, muscles, organs, and connective tissue Fattening by storing nutrients not used for maintenance, growth, r other functions

3 Six functions of a good ration
Production of milk, eggs, wool, etc Reproduction- adequate nutrition is necessary Work-other needs are met before nutrients are available for work From 1/3 to ½ of the ration fed is used for maintenance

4 Roughages Feeds that contain more than 18% crude fiber when they are dry Examples: hay, pasture grasses, silage, hulls, straw, fodder

5 Concentrates Feeds that contain less than 18% crude fiber when they are dry Examples: Grains- corn, oats, barley, wheat Processed by products- wheat bran Liquid supplements: molasses, urea Animal/Plant proteins

6 Characteristics of a Good Ration
Balanced: has all nutrients needed in the right amounts and proportions Palatable: tastes good so that animals will eat it

7 Characteristics of a Good Ration
Low cost: best nutritional value possible at lowest cost because feed costs are about 75% of the total costs of raising livestock

8 Characteristics of a Good Ration
Not harmful to health or quality of animal products Proper proportions of concentrates and roughages for type and age of animal Uniformly mixed especially micronutrients and feed additives

9 Feed additives Materials used in animal rations in small quantities to improve or stimulate performance such as feed efficiency, faster gain and health or production of animal products including eggs, milk, wool. Not generally considered nutrients

10 Hormone implants Pelleted synthetic or natural hormone like compounds placed under the skin or in the muscle of an animal to improve rate of gain and feed efficiency

11 Use of Feed Additives and Hormone Implants
Performance stimulants and increase profits because of improved performance Sub-therapeutic- Using antibiotics and antibacterials at a lower level than would be used to treat sick animals

12 Use of Feed Additives and Hormone Implants
A major health concern of low-level use is that microorganisms that cause diseases may become resistant to the drugs for treatment

13 Use of Feed Additives and Hormone Implants
Many different antimicrobial drugs are used as feed additives to prevent diseases and to increase performance in livestock and poultry. The greatest return for swine is in young pigs

14 Use of Feed Additives and Hormone Implants
Used widely in beef cattle, swine and poultry Regulated by the FDA Must be labeled as medicated feed

15 Mixing feed with additives
Read and follow the label Uniform mixing is required to get correct amounts Avoid contamination by thoroughly cleaning the mixer Keep up to date records

16 Proper Method of Hormone Implantation
Restrain the animal to prevent head movement Use a sharp needle to eliminate the crushed pellets usually caused by dull needles Be sure needle and implantation site are clean

17 Proper Method of Hormone Implantation
Select the proper place for the implant on the back surface of the ear in the middle third (about 1 ½ inch to 2 inch from the base)

18 Proper method of hormone implantation

19 Proper method of hormone implantation
Point the implanting instrument toward the head and parallel to the ear, lift the loose skin with the point of the needle and push the needle in Do NOT hit a vein or cartilage

20 Proper method of hormone implantation
Withdraw the needle slightly, start the implant, make certain the pellets have been properly deposited and slowly withdraw the needle.

21 Proper method of hormone implantation
If the needle is removed too fast, the hormone pellets may be crushed or balled up Crushing pellets causes them to be absorbed too rapidly

22 Kinds of feed additives
Antimicrobial drugs- antibiotics and antibacterials are used to prevent and control diseases Hormones are used to improve feed efficiency and rate of growth, primarily for beef cattle

23 Kinds of feed additives
Anthelmintics (dewormer): used to control worms Other additives Coccidiostats to control coccidiosis in poultry Proaxaline to prevent bloat in beef cattle

24 Examples Broad-spectrum antibiotics when the specific disease is unknown Melengesterol of MGA to suppress estrus in heifers Aureomycin, Terramycin, and penicillin in swine Piperizine and Dichlorvos are worm control additives

25 General Principles Nutrients in the ration should be balanced to meet animal’s needs at the least expense The ration should include a variety of feeds to be palatable and to make it easier to balance

26 General Principles Should be succulent to make it fresh and appealing and more palatable Should be palatable or agreeable to the taste in order for animals to eat it

27 General Principles Be bulky to satisfy hunger and to help the digestive system function properly Slightly laxative to improve feed efficiency and to prevent constipation

28 General Principles Be economical
Price per pound of energy and digestible protein determine if ration is economical Should be suited to the species and age of animal More roughages for cattle, more concentrates for swine/poultry, higher protein for younger animals

29 100% Dry Matter Basis All moisture is removed form feed
Formula: Pounds of feed on 100% dry matter basis: Pounds of feed on as-fed basis x % of dry matter in feed

30 Air dry Air dry which means it still has some moisture
Formula: Pounds of feed on as-fed basis = pounds of feed on 100% dry matter basis/% of dry matter in feed

31 Other info The weight of 100% dry matter is less than as-fed basis because 100% dry has no water See table in Gillespie reference shows % dry matter in most feeds Storing high moisture feeds will cause them to mold or build up heat

32 Rules of thumb for beef cattle
Fattening ration should include 1 ½-2 pounds of air-dried roughage and 2 pounds of concentrate per 100 pounds of body weight Cows nursing calves should be fed about 50% more than dry cows

33 Rules of thumb for swine
The amount fed depends on size and age of animal and whether sows are nursing Pigs under 50 pounds and sows that are nursing require higher percent protein feeds than market hogs

34 Rule of thumb for poultry
The ration is about 10% of body weight

35 Pearson square See Gillespie chapter on balancing rations

36 THE END!!!!!!

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