Presentation on theme: " Instructional Objective: 1.Understand the periodic chart 2.Learn about valance electrons."— Presentation transcript:
Instructional Objective: 1.Understand the periodic chart 2.Learn about valance electrons
Discovered by Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869 He arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic number. Every element is represented by a chemical symbol made up of one or two letters.
Is the scientific shorthand for the element’s name Is the abbreviated way to write the name of an element Ex: Carbon – The symbol is C Hydrogen – The symbol is H
Using one capital letter or a capital letter plus one or two small letters. Is always the first letter of the element name. Some symbols are the first letter of the name plus another letter from it’s name. Some symbols are derived from Latin words Ex: Silver – Symbol is Ag -- Latin name is Argentum
The horizontal rows of elements are called periods The elements increase by one proton and one electron from left to right.
Vertical columns are known as groups or families Are numbered 1 through 18. Elements in this group have similar properties. Ex: Group 11(Copper,silver and Gold) -Same properties like shiny, good conductor of electricity and heat,
* are malleable, *ductile, *good conductors of heat and electricity. *are solids at room temperature.
tend to be brittle. are poor conductors of heat and electricity. *have a dull luster.
* are elements that have properties of both metals and nonmetals. * may conduct heat and electricity better than a nonmetal, but not as well as a metal. *The seven metalloids lie along the zigzag line of the periodic table that separates metals and nonmetals.
Blue squares are the Metals. Yellow squares are the nonmetals. Green squares are the metalloids.
electron in the outermost energy level of an atom It determine most of the chemical properties of an element
Also known as Lewis Dot diagram. Used to show the Valance electrons. Use “Dots” to represents the valance electrons. Use the element’s symbol and show the dots around for the valance electrons.
Instructional Objective: 1.Understand the elements 2.Learn about the groups
Alkali metals:(Group IA) or Group 1 Alkaline earth metals :(Group 2A)or Group 2 Halogens : (Group 7A)or Group 17 Noble gases : (Group 8A)or Group18
The Carbon Family(Group 4A) *Contains a nonmetal, 2 metalloids and two metals. The Nitrogen Family(Group 5A) *Contains 2 nonmetals, 2 metalloids and one metal The Oxygen Family (Group 6A) * 3 nonmetals, 2 metalloids *Oxygen is the most abundant element
found in group 1 of the periodic table are very reactive metals They are all soft metals, easily cut with a knife. do not occur freely in nature have only one electron in their outer shell are softer than most other metals can explode if they are exposed to water. Lithium,Sodium,Potassium,Rubidium, Cesium,Francium are the alkali metals.LithiumSodiumPotassiumRubidium CesiumFrancium
found in the second group of the periodic table are very reactive metals do not occur freely in nature have only two electrons in their outer shell Beryllium,Magnesium,Calcium,Strontium, BerylliumMagnesiumCalciumStrontium Barium,Radium.BariumRadium
are five non-metallic elements found in group 17. The term "halogen" means "salt-former. compounds containing halogens are called "salts". All halogens have 7 electrons in their outer shells The halogens exist, at room temperature, in all three states of matter: solid, liquid and gas Solid- Iodine, Astatine Liquid- Bromine Gas- Fluorine, Chlorine
are found in group 18 of the periodic table have the maximum number of electrons possible in their outer shell (2 for Helium, 8 for all others) The electron number make them stable. Helium,Neon,Argon,Krypton,Xenon,RadonHeliumNeonArgonKryptonXenonRadon
groups 3 through 12 of the periodic table are called "transition metals".
Representative elements are Groups 1 & 2 on the left and Groups 13 - 18 on the right 1a through 8a
are made up of two series of elements, the Lanthanide and Actinide Series. One element of the lanthanide series and most of the elements in the actinide are synthetic or man-made.