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Published byEugene Maxwell Modified over 4 years ago

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**Reforming Electromagnetic Units, Equations, and Concepts: An Extension of Ivor Catt’s Theory**

Three theories of electricity- “N”, “H”, and “C” Housecleaning electromagnetic theory The voltage of the photon A capacitor is a transmission line. An inductor is a transmission line. The TEM Waveguide The TEM-ring electron The TEM wave steers the thunderbolt. A distant mountain

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**Theories N(ormal), H(eaviside), C(att)**

Theories N and H: "Now in Maxwell's theory [Theory N, ca 1860] potential energy… by… electric… and kinetic or magnetic energy… are supposed to be set up by the current in the wire. We reverse this; the current in the wire is set up by the energy transmitted through the medium around it...”[Theory H]-- Oliver Heaviside, 1892 (emphasis added-FB) Theory C: “There is no electric current.” –Ivor Catt, 1976 Electric current has never been directly measured. It is a mathematical abstraction.--FB

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Two Conductors (Obstructors) have an “electric field” spanning them when a “voltage difference” is present.

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The Catt Question “The key to grasping the question is to concentrate on the electric charge -q on the bottom conductor. The step advances one foot per nanosecond. Extra negative charge appears on the surface of the bottom conductor to terminate the new lines (tubes) of electric flux D which appear between the top (signal) conductor and the bottom conductor. “Since 1982 the question has been: Where does this new charge come from? Sir Michael Pepper, Knighted ‘for services to Physics’, says it comes from the south. Nobel Prizewinner Professor Josephson say it comes from the west.”—Ivor Catt

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The Catt Question Again When lightning strikes near a power line an electromagnetic pulse in induced. Where does the electric charge on the line come from?

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**Removing Clutter from the Theory of Electricity**

“If you want to change the world, start by cleaning your room.” (I forget who said that-FB)

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Removing Clutter Everything that can be said about an electric circuit (EC) can be said about a transmission line (TL) and vice versa. They are one and the same.

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**Removing Clutter Permittivity and Permeability**

Either use those two constants: Or use these two constants:

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**Removing Clutter Restating the Fine-structure Constant**

Old Equation en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fine-structure_constant New Equation redshift.vif.com/JournalFiles/V14NO4PDF/V14N4BIS.pdf

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**Removing Clutter Dielectric Constant, K, aka Relative Permittivity, εr**

The index of refraction is the square root of the dielectric constant. Substituting n for K allows a rewrite of the basic equations of electricity.

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**Removing Clutter Capacitance and Inductance Restated**

Old Equations New Equations Inductance/unit length: Capacitance/unit length:

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**The Voltage and Electric Current of the Photon (unity of light and electricity)**

If electricity is a TEM wave like light then light is a TEM wave like electricity. Using the equations for electricity, together with the equation for the energy of the photon, I only added one extra assumption: The photon has a non-zero length in the direction of its travel. The length is required to manifest its frequency. No assumptions about its width were needed.

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**Half-cycle Pulse Photon: Single-cycle Photon:**

The Voltage and Electric Current of the Photon (unity of light and electricity) Half-cycle Pulse Photon: Single-cycle Photon:

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**The measured field energies account for all of the power delivered to the load.**

Electric current, i, doesn’t have any physical job to do. It only acts as an accounting device. Electric current inside a wire has never been measured. A magnetic field is measured outside the wire, then electric current is hypothesized to be inside the wire.

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**Animations are at http://www.forrestbishop.4t.com**

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**Energies “stored” per unit length of two conductors.**

Magnetic field energy: Electric field energy: The energies of each field are equal, regardless of Z. The total energy is twice of either one. This is what led to the error of stored energy in a capacitor.

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The measured “fields” are measured and known to move at the speed of light for the dielectric. It is an accident of math that 2+2 = 22 “double the electric field has led to four times the energy because the formula for energy contains the square of the voltage. This quadrupling is untrue, because the two electric fields, one travelling to the right and the other to the left, have no relationship with each other. The reality is that each electric field contains energy u per unit length, totalling 2u, not 4u, of electric energy. The missing energy is contained in the invisible magnetic fields. These are invisible because the leftwards travelling magnetic field makes the equal rightwards travelling magnetic field invisible to our measuring instruments.”—Ivor Catt

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**The Static Field Illusion**

The water in a river moves but the river level stays even. When the water-current is a steady flow, a depth gauge reads a steady depth. The energy current, moving at the speed of light in an electrical device, is measured with the voltmeter and the ammeter. When the energy current level is steady the meters stand still.

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**Animations are at http://www.forrestbishop.4t.com**

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**THE CAPACITOR Old Theory N model.**

A static electric field is set up between two metal plates. Massive electrons arrive on one and depart from the other by traveling inside of the wires. Displacement current accounts for the gap. New Theory C model. Energy current moves at the speed of light through the space around the wires, enters the gap between the plates, then reciprocates back and forth, creating the illusion of a static electric field.

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**One of Maxwell’s errors, committed to preserve electric current.**

The common method of deriving displacement current. (From Griffiths, Introduction to Electrodynamics, p 304) A line integral is taken around a loop bounding a plane within the gap of capacitor plates. This cannot describe any process parallel to that plane. The conclusion is therefore assumed.

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**Stepwise “charge” of a Capacitor versus RC “charge”.**

Catt, Davidson, Walton, 1978. Fig Response of open circuit transmission line to step in voltage in series with a high resistance. MIT, 1998,

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**A Capacitor is a Transmission Line**

From - “Let us summarize the argument which erases the traditional model: a) Energy current can only enter a capacitor at the speed of light. b) Once inside, there is no mechanism for the energy current to slow down below the speed of light. c) The steady electrostatically charged capacitor is indistinguishable from the reciprocating, dynamic model. d) The dynamic model is necessary to explain the new feature to be explained, the charging and discharging of a capacitor, and serves all the purposes previously served by the steady, static model. e) The static model, since it requires electric charge, collides with the Catt Anomaly. “-Ivor Catt

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**A Capacitor is a Transmission Line**

An electric circuit is a transmission line. A capacitor is an open transmission line. An inductor is a shorted transmission line. A battery is a capacitor is a transmission line. A diode is a capacitor is a transmission line. A transistor is a capacitor is a transmission line. A computer chip is a network of electromagnetic transmission lines.

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**Theory N. “A transmission line is modeled in terms of itself**

Theory N. “A transmission line is modeled in terms of itself.” –Malcolm Davidson

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**THE INDUCTOR Old Theory N model.**

When electric current moves through a wire, a static magnetic field is set up around that wire. A coil of such wire intensifies this effect. This effect is instantaneous throughout the lumped element of inductance, L, and in the space beyond to infinity. New Theory C model. Energy current moves at the speed of light through the space around the wire. A coil creates a trap for the energy current. In contrast to the capacitor, the electric fields of the reciprocating TEM waves are concealed, creating the illusion of a static magnetic field.

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Single-turn inductor Part of the energy current (TEM step) from left travels through an impedance mismatch. It finds the short on the right and inverts. Electric fields are concealed, magnetic fields appear doubled.

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Single-turn inductor The algebra get complicated quickly, but a computer program doesn’t care.

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THE WAVEGUIDE Theory N uses Maxwell’s equations to arrive at a physically impossible model of the TE and TM modes in the waveguide. According to this, the shape and speed of a Transverse Electric (TE) wave depends on the shape of a metal tube. Instead, all modes can be modeled as TEM Waves bouncing back and forth inside the arbitrary tube, always moving at c.

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**Unphysical waves in waveguide Feynman Lectures, VII, p 24-5**

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Plane wavetrains outside of waveguide Feynman Lectures, VII, p (see animation of TEM Waveguide)

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**TEM waves bouncing through the waveguide**

From AD 1941 paper.

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**Feynman on the “Swishing” TEM Wave**

“How can this bundle of electric and magnetic fields maintain itself? The answer is: by the combined effects of the Faraday law, [curlE = -dB/dt], and the new term of Maxwell, [c^2curlB = dE/dt]. They cannot help maintaining themselves. Suppose the magnetic field were to disappear. There would be a changing magnetic field which would produce an electric field. If this electric field tries to go away, the changing electric field would create a magnetic field back again. So, by a perpetual interplay- BY THE SWISHING BACK AND FORTH FROM ONE FIELD TO THE OTHER- they must go on forever. –Feynman Lectures, p 18-8, Vol II (emphasis added-FB)

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**Feynman on the “Swishing” TEM Wave**

“I’ll tell you what I see. I see some kind of vague shadowy, wiggling lines- here and there is an *E* and *B* written on them somehow, and perhaps some of the lines have arrows on them- an arrow here or there which disappears when I look to closely at it. When I talk about the fields swishing through space, I have a terrible confusion between the symbols I use to describe the objects and the objects themselves…” –Feynman Lectures, p 20-10, Vol II (emphasis added-FB) With Feynman as proxy, mainstream obviously cannot help us out here. Notice the lines “wiggle”, this is from the sine-wave idea.

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**What happens when electricity goes around a corner?**

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**Wesley-Bergman-Lucas Spinning-ring Electron**

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**Old Words, New Words Language is a map of reality**

Old “N” term ‘New’ “C” Term Electric Current Energy Current Electric Circuit Transmission Line (TL) Electronics Electromagnetics Conductor Obstructor Electric Charge, Q Impedance, Z Charging up Loading up Integrated Circuit TL Network

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**Old Words, New Words Language is a map of reality**

Old “N” term ‘New’ “C” Term Canceled term Concealed term Volt Electric ZE (?) Amp Magnetic ZM (?) Ohm (Z, R) Ohm (Z, R) Complex Impedance Concealed TEM wave Real number line Symmetric number line TEM wave, TEM step ???

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**Reforming Electromagnetic Units, Equations, and Concepts: An Extension of Ivor Catt’s Theory**

Three theories of electricity- “N”, “H”, and “C” Housecleaning electromagnetic theory The voltage of the photon A capacitor is a transmission line. An inductor is a transmission line. The TEM Waveguide The TEM-wave ring electron The TEM wave steers the thunderbolt. A distant mountain

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