 # ORTHOGONAL FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLEXING(OFDM)

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ORTHOGONAL FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLEXING(OFDM)
UNIT-8 ORTHOGONAL FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLEXING(OFDM) by B.KesavaRao, Asst.Prof. MGIT

Index Introduction Basic Principles of Orthogonality
Single Vs Multi channel systems OFDM block diagram OFDM signal Mathematical representation

Objective of OFDM

Effect of ISI

OFDM- Introduction The major requirement of modern wireless communication systems are high capacity and variable bit rate transmission with high BW efficiency. But, the wireless environment signal usually impaired by fading and multipath delay spreading . The traditional single carrier mobile communication systems do not perform well because it suffers extreme fading of the signal and Inter Symbol Interference(ISI). This leads to a high probability of errors and the system’s overall performance becomes very poor. Because of its high-speed data transmission and effectiveness in combating the frequency selective fading channel, OFDM technique is widely used in wireless communication nowadays. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a multi-carrier transmission technique, which divides the available spectrum into many subcarriers, each one being modulated by a low data rate stream.

Introduction to ofdm Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a frequency division multiplexing (FDM) scheme used as a digital multi carrier modulation (MCM) method. OFDM is a method of digital modulation in which a signal is split into several narrowband channels at different frequencies. The main idea behind the OFDM is that since low-rate modulations are less sensitive to multipath, the better way is to send a number of low rate streams in parallel than sending one high rate waveform. A large number of closely spaced orthogonal subcarriers are used to carry data. OFDM is a promising technique for achieving high data rate and combating multipath fading in Wireless Communications.

OFDM DEFINITION OFDM = Orthogonal FDM
Carrier centers are put on orthogonal frequencies ORTHOGONALITY - The peak of each signal coincides with other signals Subcarriers are spaced by 1/Ts

Ofdm time and frequency response

Ofdm versus fdm

OFDM-Introduction Contd..
OFDM can be viewed as either a modulation technique or a multiplex technique. Modulation technique Viewed by the relation between input and output signals Multiplex technique Viewed by the output signal which is the linear sum of the modulated signals

Why OFDM? Single Carrier Multicarrier Uses the entire bandwidth
OFDM – Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Single Carrier Multicarrier Uses the entire bandwidth Splits bandwidth into subchannels Short symbol times Sends information in parallel This causes ISI OFDM: orthogonal subcarriers OFDM is a considerable option when the channel introduces ISI Applications: ADSL, DAB, DVB, Hiperlan/2, ...

Modulation techniques: monocarrier vs. multicarrier
Channel Channelization N carriers B Pulse length ~ N/B Similar to FDM technique – Data are shared among several carriers and simultaneously transmitted Guard bands B Pulse length ~1/B – Data are transmited over only one carrier – Selective Fading – Very short pulses – ISI is compartively long – EQs are then very long – Poor spectral efficiency because of band guards Drawbacks – It is easy to exploit Frequency diversity – Flat Fading per carrier – N long pulses – ISI is comparatively short – N short EQs needed – Poor spectral efficiency because of band guards Advantages Furthermore – It allows to deploy 2D coding techniques – Dynamic signalling To improve the spectral efficiency: To use orthogonal carriers (allowing overlapping) Eliminate band guards between carriers

OFDM and Multicarrier Transmission
2/8 Single and multicarrier transmission

Orthogonality Orthogonality in OFDM Time domain frequency domain
Band pass signal Where is the equivalent low pass signal of if , n is an non-integer i.e Then

OFDM and Multicarrier Transmission
4/8 Orthogonal Orthogonal, n=3 Orthogonal, n=2 (OFDM) Orthogonal, n=1 Non-orthogonal

OFDM and Multicarrier Transmission
5/8 Time domain Frequency domain

Orthogonal Frequency Division Modulation
N carriers B Symbol: 2 periods of f0 Transmit Symbol: 4 periods of f0 + f f Symbol: 8 periods of f0 Channel frequency response . Data coded in frequency domain Transformation to time domain: each frequency is a sine wave in time, all added up. B Decode each frequency bin separately Receive time f Time-domain signal Frequency-domain signal

Principles OFDM Some processing is done on the source data, such as coding for correcting errors, interleaving and mapping of bits onto symbols. An example of mapping used is QAM. The symbols are modulated onto orthogonal sub-carriers. This is done by using IFFT. Orthogonality is maintained during channel transmission. This is achieved by adding a cyclic prefix to the OFDM frame to be sent. The cyclic prefix consists of the L last samples of the frame, which are copied and placed in the beginning of the frame. It must be longer than the channel impulse response. Synchronization: the introduced cyclic prefix can be used to detect the start of each frame. This is done by using the fact that the L first and last samples are the same and therefore correlated. This works under the assumption that one OFDM frame can be considered to be stationary. Demodulation of the received signal by using FFT Channel equalization: the channel can be estimated either by using a training sequence or sending known so-called pilot symbols at predefined sub-carriers. Decoding and de-interleaving

Advantages of OFDM High spectral efficiency
Simple implementation by FFT Low receiver complexity Robust ability for high-data rate transmission over multipath fading channel. High link in terms of link adaption. OFDM eliminates Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) through the use of a cyclic prefix. OFDM is less sensitive to sample timing offsets than the single carrier systems. OFDM eliminates the need for equalizers