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Articles of Confederation

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1 Articles of Confederation
Aim: How were governments organized after independence?

2 Articles of Confederation (1781 – 1787)
First constitution (plan for government) of the United States. Created a loose union of thirteen republics. The states retained the most important powers. Each state had one vote in Congress. 9 out of 13 states had to agree to any decision (bills to be passed). All 13 states would have to agree in order to amend the Articles.

3 Structure of Government
Unicameral (single house) legislative body Each state had one vote regardless of population size Congress given sole authority to govern the country An executive committee oversaw government when Congress was not in session Congress would establish temporary courts to hear disputes among the states

4 Powers Granted to Government under the Articles of Confederation
Declare war and make peace Make treaties with foreign countries Establish an army and navy Appoint high-ranking military officials Requisition, print, and borrow money Establish weights and measures Hear disputes among the states related to trade or boundaries

5 Powers Denied to the Central Government
Congress Had no executive power to enforce laws. Had no power to make laws. Had no power to tax, impose tariffs, or collect duties. Had no power to regulate trade and there was no uniform currency. No power to force states to honor obligations Had no power to draft for war. Congress Could “recommend” laws. Could ask the states for money. Could ask the states to supply soldiers for the army.

6 Accomplishments Under the Articles of Confederation
Victory over Britain in the Revolutionary War. Negotiated the Treaty of Paris with Britain in 1783 Organization of the Western Lands. Established the Land Ordinance (1785) and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Map of the land settled in the Northwest Ordinance of 1787

7 Land Ordinance of 1785 Divided the Northwest Territory into “townships” to be offered for sale. Each township consisted of 36 lots of 640 acres each. A lot was the smallest unit that could be bought and couldn’t be sold for less than $1 an acre. The proceeds from the sale of one lot in each township would be used for public education.

8 Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Provided a government for the Northwest Territory and admission to the United States. No less than 3 states and no more than 5 states would be created as soon as the population in an area reached 60,000. Each state would have a Bill of Rights. Slavery was forbidden. The new states would be equal to the original 13 states. Education was provided.

9 Problems Facing the New Nation
Trade with foreign nations Financing the nation Foreign relations Interstate relations You decide!!! A 1783 cartoon satirizing relations between Britain and America

10 Annapolis Convention (1786)
U.S. no longer the favorite trading partner of Great Britain U.S. exports to British ports had to be on British ships Many U.S.-produced goods were barred from British ports Britain sent vast amounts of cheap goods to U.S. Potential Remedy Establish a tariff on British goods Weakness in Articles of Confederation preventing this solution Originally called to discuss British trade restrictions and the problems of inter-state trade. The delegates arranged to meet the next year to discuss revising the Articles of Confederation.

11 Shay’s Rebellion (1786) A revolt led by Daniel Shays, of the farmers in western Massachusetts against the state government. The farmers were protesting high taxes, underrepresentation in the state legislature and the foreclosure of their farms for debts. This showed the weakness of the national government and the need to change the Articles of Confederation

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