3 Introduction to industry The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain during the late 1700s.Changes in the way land was used and new farming methods increased productivity.Skilled inventors developed new technology, and entrepreneurs with money invested in new or expanded ventures.
4 The Middle ClassFarmers displaced by rural changes went to the cities to find work in factories.The availability of such natural resources as coal, iron, and water power led to the use of power-driven machines in factories.Industrialization spread to the rest of Europe and to North America, creating a new social order.A growing middle class of prosperous factory owners and managers began to exert political power, while an even larger working class pressed for reforms to improve working conditions and their daily lives.
5 Village LifeVillage life was harsh, people mostly stayed in their villages.Private and public lands were not fenced off or separated from the rest of the land.Roads were not effectively built, they were just dirt paths that turned to mud when it rained.Everyone on a farm worked hard, it was part of life back at that time.Everyone in the family-- from children to the husband and wife-- contributed something on the farm.
6 Industrialization and Nationalism, 1800–1870 The Industrial Revolution and a wave of liberal nationalist revolutions transformed Europe during the 19th century. A weakened old order gave way, and a number of unified European states emerged.Canada gained its independence, and the northern and southern United States reunited after a bloody civil war.
7 The Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution began in the late 18th century and turned Great Britain into the first and the richest industrialized nation. A series of technological advances caused Great Britain to become a leader in the production of cotton, coal, and iron. After the introduction of the first steam-powered locomotives, railroad tracks were laid across Great Britain, reducing the cost of shipping goods. The Industrial Revolution spread to Europe and North America. In the United States, the railroad made it possible to sell manufactured goods from the Northeast across the country. The Industrial Revolution had a tremendous social impact in Europe. Cities grew quickly, and an industrial middle class emerged. The industrial working class, meanwhile, dealt with wretched working conditions. These conditions gave rise to socialism, a movement aimed at improving working conditions through government control of the means of production.
9 Enclosure MovementOpen field system- system where British farmers had planted crops and kept livestock on unfenced private and public lands for hundreds of yearsLandowners felt that larger farms with enclosed fields would increase farming efficiency and productivityEnclosure Movement-practice of fencing or enclosing common lands into individual holdingsParliament supported this and passed laws that allowed landowners to take over and fence off private and common landsMany small farmers dependent on village lands were forced to move to towns and cities to find work
10 Landowners practiced new, more efficient farming methods To raise crop yields, they mixed differentkinds of soil and used new crop rotationsystemsCrop Rotation-the practice of alternatingcrops of different kinds to preserve soil fertilityCharles Townshend- urged the growing of turnips to enrich exhausted soilAnother reformer, Robert Bakewell, bred stronger horses for farm work and fatter sheep and cattle for meatJethro Tull- invented the seed drill that enabledfarmers to plant seeds in orderly rows
11 Great Britain Leads the Way This agriculture revolution helped Great Britain to lead the Industrial RevolutionSuccessful farming business allowed landowners to invest money in growing industriesMany displaced farmers became industrial workersMoney and IndustryCapital-money to invest in labor, machines, and raw materials that is essential for the growth of industryBy investing in growing industries, the aristocracy and middle class had a good chance of making a profitParliament encouraged investment by passing laws that helped the growing businessesThe four factors of economics are:land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurship
12 Great Britain Leads the Way cont. Natural ResourcesLarge Labor SupplyBritain’s wealth included its rich supply of natural resourcesWater provided power for developing industries and transported raw materials and finished goodsBritain also had huge supplies of coal, the principle raw material of the Industrial RevolutionProduced iron and steel for machinery and helped to fuel industryIn one century, England’s population nearly doubledImprovements in farming lead to increased availability of foodbetter, more nutritious food led to people living longer and healthier livesChanges in farming lead to increased supply of industrial workersEntrepreneurs-businesspeople who set up industries by bringing together capital, labor, and new industrial inventions
13 English: Work by Ford Madox Brown, 1852-63 Oil on canvas English: Work by Ford Madox Brown, Oil on canvas. Original in the Manchester City Art Galleries
14 Growing Textile Industry Advances in MachineryProducing More ClothJohn Kay- improved the loom with the flying shuttleJames Hargeaves- invented a more efficient spinning machine called the spinning jennyRichard Arkwright-developed the water frame-a huge spinning machine that ran continually on waterpowerSamuel Crompton- produce the spinning mule by combining features of the spinning jennyand the water frameEdmund Cartwright- developed the power loom to solve the shortage of weaversThe new inventions created a growing need for raw cotton(American) Eli Whitney- developed the cotton gin that cleaned cotton 50 times faster than one person could
15 Water Frame Spinning Jenny Power Loom Spinning Mule Cotton Gin Flying shuttleWater FrameSpinning JennyPower LoomSpinning MuleCotton Gin
16 The Factory SystemFactory System- organized method of production that brought workers and machines together under control of managersWaterways powered machines and provided transportation for raw materials and finished clothAs the factory system spread, manufacturers required morepower than horses and watercould provideJames Watt- designed anefficient steam engine*Steam engines allowedfactories that had to closedown when water froze orflowed too low to runcontinuouslyThe steam engine enabledfactories to be built far fromwaterways
17 Industrial Developments Water transportation also improved: in 1761, British workers dug one of the first modern canalsSoon, a canal building craze began in both Europe and the USA combination of steam power and steel would soon revolutionize both land and water transportationIn 1801, Richard Trevithick first brought steam-powered travel to land with a steam-powered carriage that ran on wheels and three years later, a steam locomotive that ran on railsIn 1807, Robert Fulton designed the first practical steamboatRailroads and steamboats laid the foundations for a global economy and opened new forms of investmentThe use of factory machinery increased demand for iron and steelHenry Bessemer and William Kelly-developed methods to inexpensively produce steel from ironAt the same time, people worked to advanced transportation systems throughout Europe and the USImprovements began when private companies began building and paving roadsJohn McAdam and Thomas Telford- further advanced road making:better drainage systems andthe use of layers of crushed rock
18 ReviewEnclosure Movement-practice of fencing or enclosing common lands into individual holdingsCrop Rotation-the practice of alternating crops of different kinds to preserve soil fertilityCharles Townshend-urged the growth of turnips to enrich exhausted soilJethro Tull-seed drillJohn Kay- flying shuttleJames Hargeaves- spinning jennyRichard Arkwright-water frameSamuel Crompton-spinning muleEdmund Cartwright- power loomEli Whitney- cotton ginFactory System- production of goods in factory through the use of machines and a large number of workersJames Watt- steam engineHenry Bessemer & William Kelly-developed methods to cheaply produce steel from ironJohn McAdam & Thomas Telford- better drainage systems and the use of layers of crushed rockRobert Fulton-steamboat
21 Samuel SlaterTall, ruddy young British worker on a ship bound for New York.A farmer was his listed occupation but he was actually a smuggler, stealing a valuable British commodity-industrial knowledge-to make money in America.Knew how to build an industrial spinning wheel and introduced it to the US.
22 Great Britain Most Productive Country in the World Kept technology secretParliament passed laws restricting the flow of machines and skilled workers to other countriesUntil 1825, the law that Slater ignored prohibited craftspeople from moving to other countriesMercenaries and technicians left Great Britain, carrying industrial knowledge with themGreat Britain
23 Railroads Britain gave up trying to guard its industrial monopoly British industrialists saw that they could make money by spreading the Industrial Revolution to other countriesLarge-scale manufacturing based on the factory system was not as successful in other lands. The major exceptions were France, Germany, and the USSet up factories in Europe, supplying capital (money), equipment, and technical staff.*earned Great Britain the title “The Workshop of the World”RailroadsConstruction was funded in India, Latin America, and North America by financiersFinanciers were people concerned with the management of large amounts of money on behalf of governments or other large organizations.
24 Industrialization: Success or Failure? FranceGermanyUnited Statesgovernment encouraged industrializationUsed British capital to build their first major railwayBritish capital and machinery and American mechanical skills promoted new industry.developed a large pool of outstanding scientistsStrong iron, coal, and textile industries emerged.Shoe and textile factories flourished in New England.industrialization was slow-pacedindustrialization was successfulindustrialization was successful especially in the NortheastNapoleonic Wars strained the economy and depleted the workforceGovernment funding helped the industry to growCoal mines and ironworks expanded in PAGrowth of mining and railway construction became big in ParisBrought machinery from Britain and set up factoriesBy 1870, the US ranked with Great Britain and Germany as one of the world’s 3 most industrialized countries.Economy depended on farming and small businesses, not new industries.
25 Technology and Industry 1The marriage of science, technology, and industry spurredeconomic growth. To improve efficiency, manufacturersdesigned products with interchangeable parts.They also introduced the assembly line.STEELCHEMICALSELECTRICITYHenry Bessemer developed a process to produce stronger steel.Steel quickly became the major material used in tools, bridges, and railroads.Alessandro Volta developed the first battery.Michael Faraday created the first electric motor and the first dynamo, a machine that generates electricity.Thomas Edison made the first electric light bulb.Chemists created hundreds of new products.New chemical fertilizers led to increased food production.Alfred Nobel invented dynamite.
26 CapitalismCapitalism was a major factor in spurring industrial growth. It was an economic system in which individuals and private firms, not the government, own the means of production, including land, machinery, and the workplace. In a capitalist system, individuals decide how they can make a profit and determine business practices accordinglyIndustrialists practiced industrial capitalism which involved continually expanding factories or investing in new businesses. After investing in a factory, capitalists used profits to hire more workers and buy more raw materials and new machines.Mass Production: the production of huge quantities of identical goodsManufacturers invested in machines to replace more costly human labor. Machines were fast working and precise and enabled industrialists to mass-produce
27 Eli WhitneyEli Whitney designed and invented the cotton gin by April The cotton gin was a machine that automated the separation of cottonseed from the short-staple cotton fiber. He contributed to the concept of interchangeable parts and increased factory production. These interchangeable parts were machine-made parts that were exactly alike and easily assembled or exchanged.
28 Frederick TaylorEncouraged manufacturers to divide tasks into detailed and specific segments of step-by-step procedureUsing his plan, industrialists devised a division of labor:Each worker performed a specialized task on a product as it moved by on a conveyor beltThat worker would then return the product to the next belt where it continued down the line to the next worker. This was called the assembly line.
29 Henry Ford Henry Ford used the assembly line methods to produce his Model T automobiles. As he produced greater quantities of his cars, the cost of producing each car fell, allowing him to drop the price. This enabled millions of people to buy cars.
30 Organizing Business The People Formed Partnerships... As production increased, industrial leaders developed ways to manage the growing business world and to ensure a continual flow of capital for business expansion.A partnership was a business organization involving two or more entrepreneurs who can raise more capital and take on more business than if each had gone into business alone.Partners share management, responsibility, and liability.Corporations are business organizations owned by stockholders who buy shares in a company. The stockholders vote on major decisions concerning the corporations. Shares decrease or increase in value depending on the profits earned by the company.Corporations became one of the best ways to manage new businesses.The People Formed Partnerships......and then They Formed Corporations
31 Business CyclesIndividual businesses concentrated on producing a particular kind of product. This increase in specialization made growing industries dependent on each other: when one industry did well, so did the others. The economic fate of a country came to rest on business cycles.Business cycles were alternating periods of business expansion and decline and follow a certain sequence.Lowest point of a business cycle-a depression, which is characterized by bank failures and/or widespread unemployment.Most people suffered during “bust” periods and prospered during peaks.
32 Amateur Inventors Amateur Inventors relied heavily on trial and error. Produced the most industrial advances at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.By the late 1800s, manufacturers began to apply more scientific findings to their businesses.
33 Communications Samuel Morse James Clerk Maxwell assembled a working model of the telegraphpromoted the development of the radioUsed a system of dots and dashesPromoted the idea that electromagnetic waves travel through space at the speed of lightAmerican inventorBritish physicistTelegraph lines linked most European and North American cities
34 Guglielmo Marconi Alexander Graham Bell devised the wireless telegraph which later became the radioinvented the telephoneScottish-born American teacher of the deafTiny electrical wires carrying sound allowed people to speak to each other over long distances
35 ElectricityScientists devised ways to harness electrical power and electricity replaced coal as the major source of industrial fuel.Michael FaradayThomas Edisondiscovered that moving a magnet through a coil in a copper wire would produce an electrical currentInvented the phonograph which reproduced soundElectric motor was based on this principleMade electric lighting cheap and accessible by inventing incandescent light bulbs.British chemistAmerican inventor
37 Energy & Engines Gottlieb Daimler Rudolf Diesel Ferdinand von Zeppelin The Industrial Revolution surged forward with advances in engines. These inventions ushered in the age of the motor car:Gottlieb DaimlerGerman engineerRedesigned the internal combustion engineNow runs on gasolineProduced enough power to propel vehicles and boatsRudolf DieselGerman engineerDeveloped an oil-burning internal-combustion engineCould run industrial plants, ocean liners, and locomotivesFerdinand von ZeppelinStreamlined the dirigible with a gasoline engineA dirigible was a 40-year-old balloon-like invention that could carry passengers
38 Advances in Transportation and Communication 1Advances in Transportation and CommunicationDuring the second Industrial Revolution, transportation and communication were transformed by technology.COMMUNICATIONSamuel Morse developed the telegraph.Alexander Graham Bell patented the telephone.Guglielmo Marconi invented the radio.TRANSPORTATIONSteamships replaced sailing ships.Rail lines connected inland cities and seaports, mining regions and industrial centers.Nikolaus Otto invented a gasoline-powered internal combustion engine.Karl Benz patented the first automobile.Rudolf Diesel invented the diesel engineHenry Ford began mass producing cars.Orville and Wilbur Wright designed and flew the first airplane.
39 Taking FlightWilbur and Orville Wright achieved success in 1903 at Kitty Hawk with the first flight of a motorized airplane. It covered a distance of 120 feet. Only five years later they flew their wooden airplane 100 miles.New airplanes and other vehicles needed a steady supply of fuel for power and rubber for tires and other parts. Petroleum and rubber industries skyrocketed and innovations in transportation, communications, and electricity changed the American lifestyle forever.
41 The Rise of Big Business 1New technologies required the investment of large amounts of money. To obtain capital, entrepreneurs sold stock, or shares in their companies, to investors. Large-scale companies formed corporations, businesses that are owned by many investors who buy shares of stock.Powerful business leaders created monopolies and trusts, huge corporate structures that controlled entire industries or areas of the economy.Sometimes a group of businesses joined forces and formed a cartel, an association to fix prices, set production quotas, or control markets.
42 The Rise of the Middle Class More jobs came along with successful ownersEducation became a key idea along with people becoming involved in politics
43 Middle-Class Lifestyles The stereotype of men go out to work and the women stayed home to clean and raise the children developed during this periodBoys sent to school to learn business or trade and typically took father’s position or worked in family businessGirls stayed at home learning to cook, sew and all the workings of a household
44 2The World of CitiesWhat was the impact of medical advances in the late 1800s?How had cities changed by 1900?How did working-class struggles lead to improved conditions for workers?
45 City Life2As industrialization progressed, cities came to dominate the West. At the same time, city life underwent dramatic changes.Settlement patterns shifted: the rich lived in pleasant neighborhoods on the outskirts of the city, while the poor crowded into slums near the city center.Paved streets, gas lamps, organized police forces, and expanded fire protection made cities safer and more liveable.Architects began building soaring skyscrapers made of steel.Sewage systems improved publichealth.
46 Lives of the Working Class Class size increasedLuxuries became availableNo longer made or grew what the family needed
47 At the Mercy of Machinery As competition increased between factories, work conditions decreasedWorkers spent between hours in the factories a dayWomen made less than half the amount men made and children made even less
48 Working-Class Struggles 2Working-Class StrugglesWorkers protested to improve the harshconditions of industrial life. At first,business owners tried to silenceprotesters, strikes and unions wereillegal, and demonstrations were crushed.By mid-century, workers slowly began to make progress:Workers formed mutual-aid societies, self-help groups to aid sick or injured workers.Workers won the right to organize unions.Governments passed laws to regulate working conditions. Social unionism—vote in guys who will pass pro-union laws.Governments established old-age pensions and disability insurance.The standard of living improved.
49 Workers’ LivesWorking children didn’t go to school, they worked long hours and suffered from diseases and injuries from the intense work.Working offered new independence for womenOwners of mills often controlled most of the worker’s lives
50 Workers UniteDeveloped labor unions that demanded fair wages and tolerable working conditionsLabor unions are made up of workers of a trade
51 Union Tactics Organized protests, slowdowns, boycotts, sitdowns, strikesUnions banned in England, and known members of unions lost their jobs and were not hired for jobs in U.S.--blacklistedCollective bargaining developed
52 2Advances in MedicineImproved medicine and hygiene played a major role in increasing life expectancy in the industrialized world.LOUIS PASTEUR proved the link between microbes and disease, developed vaccines against rabies and anthrax, and discovered the process of pasteurization, the killing of disease-carrying microbes in milk.ROBERT KOCH identified the bacteria that caused tuberculosis.FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE insisted on better hygiene in wartime field hospitals, introduced sanitary measures in British hospitals, and founded the world’s first nursing school.JOSEPH LISTER discovered how antiseptic prevented infection.
53 Population Explosion Year Male Female 1850 40.3 years 42.8 years Between 1800 and 1900, the population of Europe more than doubled. This rapid growth was not due to larger families. Instead, population soared because the death rate fell. The drop in the death rate can be attributed to the following:People ate better.Medical knowledge increased.Public sanitation improved.Hygiene improved.Year Male Femaleyears 42.8 yearsyears 44.7 yearsyears 48.5 yearsyears 56.0 years
54 The Industrial Revolution: Cause and Effect 2Immediate Effects•Rise of factories•Changes in transportation and communication•Urbanization•New methods of production•Rise of urban working class•Growth of reform movementsCauses•Increased agricultural productivity•Growing population•New sources of energy, such as steam and coal•Growing demand for textiles andother mass-produced goods•Improved technology•Available natural resources, labor,and money•Strong, stable governmentspromoted economic growthLong-Term Effects•Growth of labor unions•Inexpensive new products•Spread of industrialization•Rise of big business•Expansion of public education•Expansion of middle class•Competition for world trade among industrialized nations•Progress in medical care
55 What Values Shaped the New Social Order? 3A strict code of etiquette governed social behavior.Children were supposed to be “seen but not heard.”Middle-class parents had a large say in choosing the future spouse for their children. At the same time, the notion of “falling in love” was more accepted than ever before.Men worked while women stayed at home. Books, magazines, and popular songs supported a cult of domesticity that idealized women and the home.
56 3Rights for WomenAcross Europe and the United States, politically active women campaigned for fairness in marriage, divorce, and property laws.Women’s groups supported the Temperance movement, a campaign to limit or ban the use of alcoholic beverages.Before 1850, some women had become leaders in the union movement.Some women campaigned to abolish slavery.Many women broke the barriers that kept them out of universities and professions.In the mid- to late 1800s, groups dedicated towomen’s suffrage emerged.
57 Growth in Public Education 3Growth in Public EducationBy the late 1800s, reformers persuaded many governments to set up public schools and require basic education for all children.Governments began to expand secondary schools, or high schools.Colleges and universities expanded during this period. Universities added courses in the sciences to their curriculums.Some women sought greater educational opportunities. By the 1840s, a few smallcolleges for women opened.