Presentation on theme: "The Sun. Sun Considered a medium STAR 93,000,000 miles away from Earth 1.39 million kilometers in diameter (one million Earths can fit inside the sun."— Presentation transcript:
The sun’s structure Core – 27 million degrees Fahrenheit, where thermonuclear fusion occurs Photosphere – innermost part of sun’s atmosphere but still visible to us, made of hydrogen gas that burns at 9000 degrees Fahrenheit – causes it to glow yellow
The sun’s structure Chromosphere – inner atmosphere, region of glowing gas; red color caused by ionization of hydrogen Corona – outer atmosphere, thin layer of gas that extends millions of km beyond chromosphere
Thermonuclear fusion The sun is so bright because it goes through thermonuclear fusion – when hydrogen atoms get turned into helium atoms due to high heat and pressure –Releases massive amounts of heat and light as a byproduct –This energy and light released from the sun takes 8 minutes to reach us
What is a sunspot? An area on the sun that has extremely strong magnetic activity The magnetic activity does NOT allow convection so it is a cool region Looks like a dark spot Lasts 2 weeks and only occurs in 11 year cycles Magnetic fields
Solar prominence Streamers of hot gases arching above photosphere Do not disrupt Earth’s communications
Solar winds Every 11 years, the suns magnetic poles reverse and release energy –Billions of tons of particles fire into space at 1 million mph, at the peak it is called the solar maximum, speeds can reach 3 million mph –We are in a solar maximum now
Solar Wind – a continuous flow of electrons and protons from the sun into space
How is Earth protected? Magnetosphere- magnetic field that is surrounding the Earth Without the magnetic field, the solar winds would be much more dangerous
Why does this matter? Strong solar flares and sunspots can damage our communication systems and electrical systems Also increase aurora activity Aurora Borealis and Australis – lights caused by interactions of atomic particles between solar wind and the ionosphere
Effect of solar flares and solar winds http://www.teachersdomain.org/resource/e ss05.sci.ess.eiu.solarwind/http://www.teachersdomain.org/resource/e ss05.sci.ess.eiu.solarwind/ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hueen 7jPi0whttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hueen 7jPi0w
SDO (solar dynamics observatory) AIA images the outer layer of the Sun's atmosphere (corona) at temperatures from 20 thousand to 20 million degrees. EVE keeps track of the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) rays that the Sun sends towards us. UV rays cause skin cancer. Extreme UV rays are even more dangerous. Our atmosphere absorbs UV, keeping us safe. HMI will measure the ripples and the magnetic fields on the surface of the Sun (photosphere) to determine what is happening on the inside.
Photo taken in extreme ultraviolet on March 30, 2010 by the Solar Dynamics Observatory that was launched by NASA on February 11, 2010.