Presentation on theme: "The mock will focus on the three topics below in green"— Presentation transcript:
1 The mock will focus on the three topics below in green UNIT 1UNIT 2Restless EarthLiving WorldWater On the LandPopulation ChangeChanging Urban EnvironmentsTourism
2 Three questions in mock! 30 minutes on eachRestless EarthLiving WorldPopulationREVISION GUIDES £3 (rrp £5.99)Please ask Mrs Harris or Mr BakerLimited stock left
3 Exam tips Pen (spare) Pencil Sharpener / rubber Spellings Environment Volcano / VolcanoesErosionDesertDeciduousDon’t forgetLook out for questions without lines to write – you may have to draw on maps /graphs!Examiners cannot take marks off you – always answer the Q!!
9 Convection currents in the mantle drive the plates to move!! DESTRUCTIVECONSTRUCTIVECONSERVATIVEOceanic plate moves towards continental plateOceanic plate subducts beneath the continental plate (as it is denser and more flexible). An ocean trench is formed.Friction builds up between the two plates and causes earthquakes.The oceanic plate melts in the mantle and pressure increases. This is released as a volcanic eruption (composite volcano)Two oceanic plates separateThe two plates separate leaving a gap between them.Magma rises from the mantle and makes its way between the plates.This comes out as lava as is runny so forms a wide volcanic cone (constructive)Two plates move besides each other (opposite direction or one faster than the other.Pressure builds up between the two plates as they attempt to move.Eventually the plates jolt forwards as they move and the friction between the plates is released as a strong seismic wave (earthquake).
15 Mt St Helens Location / causes The oceanic Juan de Fuca plate subducts beneath the continental North American plate. (DESTRUCTIVE PLATE MARGIN)Size8:32am 18 May 1980: an earthquake caused a landslide which released the pressure inside the volcano.Effects57 people died (one of them a volcanologist)Airports were closed.Emergency treatment was given in nearby towns to the people rescued.185 miles of roads, 15 miles of railway and 27 bridges were destroyed.Tourism increased to the area (3 million per year)ResponsesHelicopters were used to search for and rescue people close to the eruption.Forest in the area began to be replanted.The area became a National Park in 1982 and now attracts 3 million visitors per year.
16 Monitoring and Predicting Volcanoes TiltmetersGas SensorsGPSSeismographsThermometers (ground and water temperatures)Animal behaviourThink about how you know you have a tummy upset!
17 Formation of a supervolcano Think of a big spot!
18 Supervolcano – Yellowstone, USA Size / ShapeEffects1000km3The magma chamber beneath Yellowstone is believed to be 80km long, 40km wide and 8km deepCaldera – large depression surrounded by a raised rimAn eruption today would have a catastrophic effect. It is potentially five times the minimum size for a supervolcanic eruption by the size of the magma chamber.An eruption is likely to destroy 10,000 km2 of land and kill people. 1 in 3 people will be killed within 1000km of an eruption. 15cm of ash would cover buildings within this area and make them collapse. This ash would ground planes and make road transport difficult. Livestock would die as they would choke in the hot ash.UK would see the arrival of the ash about 5 days later. This ash will circle the Earth, changing the climate. Temperatures will fall by over 10 degrees which will make it difficult to grow food in many areas. 40% of the population could face starvation. Certain parts of northern Europe will be snow covered for 3 years, so no food will be able to be grown.
20 Fold Mountains Challenges: Steep Relief – Use of chairlifts to travel up slopes and get fresh produce (milk) from farms down to market. Use of steep slopes for tourism e.g. skiing.Poor Soils – Use of fertilisers and farming on flat valley floorLimited Communications – New roads, railway lines (on flat valley floors) and tunnels e.g. Mont Blanc and St. Bernard tunnels.UsesHEP – generates energy for local villages (ideal snow melt in summer provides water, easy to build dam across valley)Farming - Transhumance farmingTourism – Winter (skiing) Summer (mountain biking / hiking)Industries – saw mills (wood), electrochemical, mining
21 Geosyncline Sedimentary rock – sandstone Compressed to form fold mountains e.g. Alps
22 Describing the distribution of ocean trenches and fold mountains Edge of oceans – Pacific OceanWhere continental and oceanic plates meetFold mountains – west coast of North and South America** use names
25 How we measure earthquakes What are the differences?
26 Monitoring and Predicting Earthquakes Three PsPrediction – attempts to forecast when it will happenProtection – construction of buildings so they are safe and will not collapsePreparation – organising activities and drills so people know what to do in the event of and earthquake
27 Sichuan Earthquake, China 2008 MEDCLEDCLocationKobe Earthquake 1995Sichuan Earthquake, China 2008EffectsImmediateDeaths = 6500Injuries = 40,000Roads were at gridlock, delaying emergency services.Houses completely destroyed = 180,000. Homeless = 300,000Industries like Mitsubishi and Panasonic were forced to close.Long-termFires raged for days destroying 7500 houses (many of them woodenHanshin expressway and bridges collapsed.High speed bullet trains were derailed as the rails buckledDeath toll was two months after the earthquake.* 900 students trapped in collapsed school. Parents angry about the cheap building materials used.* At least were injured. Chemical plants collapsed, killing hundreds and spilling toxic ammonia.* 80% of buildings collapsed in rural Beichuan which was near the epicentre.* Communications were cut – no land or mobile phones worked in Wenchuan.Rivers were blocked by landslides and there was fear they may flood.At least 5 million (some say 11 million) were made homelessResponsesMotorola maintained telephone connections for free.Major retailers like 7-Eleven helped provide essentials.Friends and neighbours searched through the rubble, joined by emergency services when access was possible.Evacuate people into temporary shelters because they were still at risk from many fires and unstable buildings.Rescue services are specially trained and the whole country practices responding to an earthquake on 12th January, the anniversary of the Kobe earthquake, in an Earthquake Preparation Day.High rise buildings had to have flexible steel frames.Increase in the number of seismic instruments use to record earth movements.New buildings were built further apart to prevent the domino effect.20 helicopters used for relief and rescue operations. One million temporary small homes to be built to house those made homeless.Troops were parachuted in to assess the situation while others hiked in on foot.The Chinese government pledged $10 million for rebuilding. Areas of land flattened to make room for the 3.3 million tents used for emergency shelter.
29 TsunamiThe Indo Australian plate subducts beneath the Eurasian plate causing an earthquake.The earthquake displaces the column of water above it upwards.The water that has gone up comes down and splits into two waves. One wave travels out to sea and the other wave travels towards the coastal areas of south-east Asia.The wave reaches the shoreline and gains height before it crashes onto the land.Primary cause = the earthquakeSecondary cause = the Tsunami wave
30 Tsunami – Indian Ocean, Boxing Day, 2004 Immediate EffectsDeaths:Serious injuries:4500 fishing boats destroyed in IndiaFresh water reservoirs unusable for drinking water.Bodies littered the streetsInjured people wounds became infectedLong-term Effects2 million homeless 1500 homes in Banda Aceh (city in Indonesia) completely destroyed. Only one mosque left standing.Loss of tourism and fishing economies in Indonesia, Thailand and India.Immediate ResponsesFood, sheeting and tents sent by MEDCs.Fresh water and water purification tablets sent from the international community.Medical teams sent from MEDCs.Mass graves had to be set upLong-term ResponsesRebuilding of homes and businesses, especially in tourist resorts like Phuket in Thailand.Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System set up in so people have warning and know how to respond if it happens again.
34 Producer – organisms that obtain their energy from a primary source such as the sun Consumer – organisms that obtain their energy by eating other organisms Food Chain – a line of links between producers and consumers Food Web – a diagram showing the complex links between producers and consumers
35 Do you know the difference? DecomposerOrganisms such as bacteria that break down plant and animal material.ScavengerOrganisms that consume dead animals or plants
36 BiomeMicroMesoMacroBiome – global scale ecosystem dominated by climate e.g. Tropical Rainforest.
37 Location /Distribution Tropical Rainforests – along the equator (Between the tropic of Cancer and Capricorn)Deserts – degrees North and SouthTemperate Deciduous Forests degrees North and south
38 Biome Case studies Tropical Rainforest Rich Desert Poor Desert Deciduous WoodlandNameBorneo, MalaysiaSonoran Desert, USAThat Desert,IndiaEpping Forest, Essex, UK
39 Climates and Soils Biome Tropical Rainforest Desert Deciduous Forest TemperatureAverage daily temp of 28 degrees C (never goes below 20)Daytime temperatures can be above 40 degrees CCan be very cold at nightSummers warm – winters coolPrecipitation (rain)2000mm of rain per yearHumidNo real seasonsVery dry (arid) Less than 250mm of rain per yearContinental Interior(torrential downpour)Throughout the yearSoilsLatosolFertile Humus layerLeachingRed/Iron RichRocky and SandyThin – can have a crustSalts deposited near the surfaceBrown EarthFertility comes from leaves which fall in the winter rotting
40 Climate graphs If you have to describe them include numbers! Highest LowestSeasons
41 Stratified Vegetation growing in layers Tropical Rainforest Deciduous Woodland
42 Vegetation Adaptations Adaptation featureExplanation of how it helps the vegetation to cope with the climateRAINFORESTS:Buttress rootsDrip tipsThin, smooth barkLianasEpiphytesLeaves with flexible basesDESERTS:Thick waxy skinSpikesFleshy stemLong shallow rootsSlow growing plantsTEMPERATE DECIDUOUS:Losing leaves in AutumnBluebells flowering in early Spring
44 Causes and impacts of deforestion Cause of deforestation in MalaysiaDetail about the causeAn impact of this cause of deforestationEconomic, social or environmental impact?Commercial Logging Clear felling was common in the 1980s. Deforestation threatens the survival of many species, including the orang-utan A local Penan community protested against a logging company and were imprisoned.Malaysia was the biggest exporter of tropical woods and so made a lot of money.Energy $2bn Bakun Dam project flooded thousands of hectares of forest to provide hydroelectric power for new industries. 9000 Kenyah people have been forced to move from the flooded area. They are traditional subsistence farmers (farm enough to eat but not sell) but are being asked to pay to be rehoused. Many suffer from depression and alcoholism.MiningFor tin and drilling for oil and gas. Forest has been cleared for operations and construction of roads. Land and rivers have been polluted by mining chemicals and affected local food chains.Commercial plantations Forest was cleared for rubber plantations and, in the 1970s, for oil palm. 10 year tax breaks for owners has led to more forest being converted to plantations. Malaysia was the largest exporter of palm oil in the world and so made a lot of money.
45 Sustainable management in the Tropical Rainforest Name of strategyInternational or national?Selective Management System (SMS) Tree is removed from forest by water buffalo rather than a lorry.Fully grown trees are selected.Arrows painted on trees to show which direction it should be felled (cut down)Replacement tree is planted.Permanent Forest Estates Areas of forest are protected – no development or conversion to plantations is allowed.10% has special conservation statusForest Stewardship Council Educates people to buy soft, fast growing wood like pine rather than hard, slow growing wood like mahogany.Educates manufacturers and consumers (buyers) to buy wood only from sustainable sources (all their products have the FSC label on)Ecotourism Borneo – swiftlet nest caves (one used by swiftlets, one harvested for their nests to sell, one shown off to tourists) Borneo – turtles (used to eat them, now have a hatchery to show tourists who then set them free into the oceans)Tourism that focuses onprotecting the environmentand the local way of life.Debt relief LEDCs are paid money by MEDCs to make sure their rainforests are not cut down
47 Recreation – interpreting a map Use the key to suggest recreational activities that may take place in this ecosystem
48 Sustainable management in Deciduous Woodland (Epping Forest – Essex) Management strategy:What makes this management option sustainable? (How does it allow us to use the forest today whilst ensuring that future generations will also be able to benefit from the forest? )Pollarding of over 1000 ancient trees.Cutting trees at shoulder height (above the level of grazing animals). Trees reshoot new branches.1600 ha of forest is a Site of Special Scientific Interest.This offers protection under law to the forests large number of ancient trees which support a large number of animals and other vegetation.Old trees.Are allowed to die and collapse naturally unless they are dangerous.Recreation.Riding and mountain biking are restricted in places and footpaths are maintained to a good standard.
50 Economic opportunity (employment) Management (response) Economic opportunities, challenges and management MEDC/RICH DESERT SONORAN DESERT, USASonoran Desert, USAEconomic opportunity (employment)Challenge (problems)Management (response)Families migrated to the Phoenix and Tucson to work on the huge farms, mainly growing cotton which uses a lot of water.Farms grow wheat, barley, pecan nuts and durum wheat which is exported to Italy to make pasta.In 2007, Marana began hosting golf’s PGA Matchplay ChampionshipRetirement migration has meant lots of new housing complexes have had to be built for older migrants.The open space and clean atmosphere are very attractive to holidaymakers.In the mid-19th century ranching and mining were the big industries.Habitats that rely on rivers are disappearing as the rivers dry up.The water table has dropped by nearly 3 metres in some places.Water is being pumped out of aquifers (underground lakes) faster than they can be refilled.Lakes with water from Salt River are the main supply of water but can only provide enough for half of the city’s demand.The water table dropping has led to land the size of North Yorkshire subsiding (sinking) which causes problems for buildings and roads.The water table has dropped which means getting water from the ground has become more expensive and the water quality has droppedSpare water from the CAP is being sent to refill aquifers (underground lakes).Conservation – farms are being shut down so water can be used in the cities.Central Arizona Project (CAP) is a network of canals that transports water from the Colorado River to the cities of Phoenix and Tucson.Waste water is being used for jobs that don’t need a high level of purity.Endangered Species Act – used to prevent developers from building more buildings which will need more water for its residentsA heritage park that celebrates the town’s agricultural past attracts tourists throughout the year..
51 Economic opportunity (employment) Management (response) Economic opportunities, challenges and management LEDC/POOR DESERT THAR DESERT, INDIAThar Desert, IndiaEconomic opportunity (employment)Challenge (problems)Management (response)Thar Desert is the most densely populated desert in the world (83 people per km2). This is leading to overgrazing and over cultivation (farming) which leads to soil erosion. Once eroded away the soil takes thousands of years to re-form.Most farmers keep a few animals on the grassy areas and cultivate vegetables and fruit trees so they have some crops to sell at local marketsThe Kohlis tribe survive by hunting animals and gathering fruit and natural products such as honey.Limestone is quarried in Jaisalmer and used in the steel industry.Rajasthan is rich in minerals and the following are mined: gypsum (makes cement), phospherite (makes fertiliser), kaolin (whitens paper) and feldspar (makes ceramics)People make a living selling hide and wool from livestock (animals).Most people are involved with subsistence farming (producing enough food for farmer and family to live off)Local people act as guides on camel safaris or rear/look after the camels.Too much irrigation (watering) has led to waterlogging in some areas. Salts get deposited on the ground surface and poison the plants. Too much demand for water in some places has caused an unsustainable fall in the water tables (it cannot continue forever).Sand dunes are unstable and can move across farmland, roads and waterways.Rainfall is very low ( mm per year) and temperatures are very high (53˚c) which makes commercial farming (farming to make a profit) very difficult.Prosopis cineraria tree has multiple uses: a) planted in blocks to stabilise sand dunes and stop them moving, b) its pods provide food for animals, c) wood can be used as a strong building material and good quality firewood.Reserves of firewood, their main source of fuel, is reducing so people are using manure as fuel rather than using manure to fertilise the soil.The 650km long Indira Gandhi Canal was built in It provides drinking water for many people in the desert and means that commercial farming of wheat and cotton (selling these for a profit) occurs in the Jodhpur and Jaisalmer.Trees and fences are built alongside roads and canals to block the movement of sand dunes across them.Thar Desert National Park has been created to protect 3000 km2 of desert vegetation and wildlife. The Ber Tree produces large plums and can survive in low rainfall conditions. The plums can then be sold for a decent profit.
52 Sustainable Management Protected for future generationsDescribe the strategy but also link this to how this leads to protecting the environment for future generations to use
54 Demographic Transition Model You m ay need to draw stage 5 – remember Birth rate falls below Death rate
55 Population Change J Curve S Curve Keywords: Birth rate Death rate Natural change / natural increasePopulation Growth rate
56 Factors affecting population change Changes to farmingMechanisationChildren are no longer needed as machinery can be used on farmsEducation and WomenEmancipationWomen have a voice and wish to have a career not large familyUrbanisationAs more people live in cities fewer children are needed for farm work and therefore people have smaller families
58 Sustainable population policy Birth Control Policy China One Child Policy ConsequencesSlower natural increaseMore only childrenLittle emperor syndromeAntisocial behaviourMale dominated populationDifficult to find partner1979 / 1980 onwardsCouples who had one child received financial rewardsThose who had more than one child were finedReports of forced abortions and sterilisationsGranny police – older members reported those breaking the rule.Since the 1990sYoung couples who are both only children can have two children (help elderly)Change of attitude towards girls. Some can now afford to have more than one child and break the rulesIf the first child is a girl then couples are allowed a secondSex determination scans banned in 1994
59 Non-Birth Control Policy Gambia Non-birth Control Policy means people are educated not forced to reduce the number of children they haveChallengesStrategiesToo many young peopleReligious beliefsMultiple wivesLack of educationPoor health care for childrenSchool has too many students2 toilets for 2000 studentsRunning out of resourcesNGO (Charity) ‘Futures’ distributed condoms to villages on motorbikes.Mobile pharmacy visiting remote rural areas.Female chat shows to discuss contraceptionVaccinations for children against whooping cough etcSchool split dayFamily planning discussedBacked by religious leadersEducate boys and girls to abstain from sexHealthcare for women to space births
60 Ageing population Graph Skills The sections show the percentages of each group which (its like a pie chart in a line!)
61 Ageing Population (East Devon, UK and France) ChallengesThe reason this is negative is because…More frequent visits to doctors and chemists….it is a strain on NHS resources.More geriatric operations in hospitals….it means more money is needed for operations like hip replacements so less money for younger people.People unable to live independently….more specialist care homes are needed which costs lots of money.People less confident about or are unable to drive….then they become isolated and lonely.Solutions FRANCE PRONATALIST POLICY
62 Rural to Urban Migration Push FactorsPull FactorsMove people away from the place they live (rural)Draw people towards the place they move to (Urban)
63 Polish Migration Source / origin (Poland) Host / Destination (UK) Positive PolandNegative PolandPositive UKNegative UKUnemployment is reduced as many Polish workers leave to work in the UK.Birth rate will fall as it is often young people (potential parents) who leave Poland.Population increases in the UK which creates a strain on health and education servicesMany Poles spend very little on accommodation and food so they can return home with money and set up a business or buy a house.More than half of Polish migrants send money home. About £4 billion is transferred to Poland each yearNearly 7 in 1000 Poles have moved from Poland to the UK, most of them younger working people leading to a shortage of workers and a shortage in pension contributions and taxesMost immigrants integrate well as new arrivals from Poland are better informed and more realistic about life in the UK. (Many children learn about the British way of life in Polish schools).Specialist language teachers and translators have had to be employed in some areas with large immigrant populations. There is less pressure on resources (e.g. land) as people leave to work in the UK.The Polish divorce rate has doubled in 7 years as long periods of separation puts a strain on marriages.UK supermarkets have cashed in on a new market of customers. E.g. Tescos now sell over 100 different lines of Polish food.Pressure on A&E hospital services as few immigrants register with a doctor.Brain drain: often the more skilled and better educated Polish people migrate meaning there is a shortage of skilled labour (e.g. doctors get paid four times as much in the UK compared to Poland)Polish businesses have opened where immigrants have settled and rejuvenated declining neighbourhood shopping areas – often doing jobs British citizens don’t want to do (e.g. farm work, fruit picking etc).Increased racial tension in some areas of the country that has large numbers of immigrants.Polish labourers have filled the gaps in the UK labour market – working hard and for minimum wage.
64 Refugee movements Afghan Refugees Afghanistan had an estimated population of 28 million3 million refugeesDifficult life, drought, poverty, corruption.The Jungle – area of wasteland on the edge of CalaisEntrance to channel tunnelAugust afghans living there (trying to get to the UK)Wanted to get to England because it is ‘good and safe’22nd December 2009 the remaining migrants were arrested. 24 hours later the settlement was bulldozedMany released so returned and attempted to try and get into the UK again.Asylum Seeker – seeking asylumRefugee – granted asylumEconomic Asylum Seeker – claiming to need protection but actually moving for economic benefits.