Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Genetic Mutations.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Genetic Mutations."— Presentation transcript:

1 Genetic Mutations

2 What Are Mutations? Changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA
May occur in body cells and are not passed to offspring May occur in gametes (eggs & sperm) and be passed to offspring

3 Are Mutations Helpful or Harmful?
Mutations happen regularly and often neutral Many mutations are naturally repaired by enzymes Causes of mutations: Natural Chemicals Radiation Other environmental factors

4 Are Mutations Helpful or Harmful?
Some mutations are harmful and can cause: Cancer Birth defects Physical impairments Other life altering conditions Some mutations may improve an organism’s survival This is know as evolution

5 Chromosome Mutations and Gene Mutations
Types of Mutations Chromosome Mutations and Gene Mutations

6 Chromosome Mutations May Involve:
Changing the structure of a chromosome The loss or gain of part of a chromosome

7 Types of Chromosome Mutations
Five types exist: Deletion Inversion Translocation Nondisjunction Duplication

8 Due to breakage, a piece of a chromosome is lost
Deletion Due to breakage, a piece of a chromosome is lost

9 Inversion Chromosome segment breaks off Segment flips around backwards
Segment reattaches

10 Occurs when a gene sequence is repeated
Duplication Occurs when a gene sequence is repeated

11 Translocation Involves two chromosomes that not homologous
Part of one chromosome is transferred to another chromosomes

12 Nondisjunction Caused by a failure of chromosomes to separate during meiosis As a result, the gamete will have too many or too few chromosomes

13 Gene Mutations

14 What are Gene Mutations?
Change in the nucleotide sequence of a gene May only involve a single nucleotide May be due to copying errors, chemicals, viruses, etc.

15 Types of Gene Mutations
Include: Point Mutations Substitutions Insertions Deletions Frameshift

16 Point Mutation What is it? Example: Change of a single nucleotide
Includes the deletion, insertion, or substitution of ONE nucleotide in a gene Sickle Cell disease is the result of one nucleotide substitution Occurs in the hemoglobin gene

17 Frameshift Mutation Inserting or deleting one or more nucleotides
Changes the “reading frame” like changing a sentence Causes proteins to be built incorrectly

18 Food inc Class Discussion

19 Discussion See teacher for details

20 Modern Genetics

21 Objectives Describe ways of producing organisms with desired traits
State the goal of the human genome project

22 Selective Breeding Definition: The process of selecting organisms with desired traits to be the parents of the next generation This process has been used for hundreds of years Two Types: Inbreeding- crossing two individuals that have similar characteristics Hybridization- crossing two genetically different individuals

23 Cloning Cloning- a technique used to produce offspring with desired traits (identical to the traits of another organism) Clone- an organism that has identical gene as the one from which it was produced WATCH - BrainPop: Dolly the Sheep

24 Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering- genes from one organism are transferred into the DNA of another Examples …. Gene therapy- use of genetic engineering to correct genetic disorders. Concerns…

25 The Human Genome Project
Genome- all of the DNA in one cell of an organism Goal of the Human Genome Project: Identify the sequence of every gene in the human genome Interesting Facts: The DNA of humans consists of at least 30,000 genes Each gene has about 3,000 bases (A, T, G, C) Other Uses: DNA Fingerprinting Technology used in the Human Genome Project can be used to identify people and show whether people are related

Download ppt "Genetic Mutations."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google