Presentation on theme: "Splash Screen. Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction Section 1: What Is Research?What Is Research? Section 2:Problems and Solutions in ResearchProblems and."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction Section 1: What Is Research?What Is Research? Section 2:Problems and Solutions in ResearchProblems and Solutions in Research Section 3: Statistical EvaluationStatistical Evaluation
Chapter Preview 1 Chapter Objectives · Section 1 What Is Research? Describe the process in which psychologists approach a research issue and conduct the research to test a hypothesis, solve a problem, or confirm previous research.
Chapter Preview 2 Chapter Objectives · Section 2 Problems and Solutions in Research Discuss how psychologists must recognize and resolve errors as they conduct research.
Chapter Preview 3 Chapter Objectives · Section 3 Statistical Evaluation Recognize that psychologists must collect and evaluate evidence to support their hypotheses.
Section 1-Main Idea Main Idea Psychologists must first decide how to approach the research issue. Then psychologists conduct the research in one of a variety of ways to test a hypothesis, solve a problem, or confirm previous findings.
Section 1-Key Terms Vocabulary sample naturalistic observationnaturalistic observation case study survey longitudinal study cross-sectional study correlation hypothesis variable experimental group control group
Section 1-Objectives Objectives Describe the process of psychological research and the scientific method. Name the different types of psychological research.
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1-Polling Question Which of the following do you think is the best method of research? A.naturalistic observation B.case study C.survey D.longitudinal study
Section 1 Pre-Research Decisions Researchers begin by asking a specific question about a limited topic or hypothesis. Then they collect evidence. A sample is a relatively small group of the total population under study.sample A sample must be representative.
Section 1 Pre-Research Decisions (cont.) Ways to avoid a nonrepresentative sample: –Take a purely random sample. –Deliberately pick individuals who represent the various subgroups in the population being studied, also known as a stratified sample. Jane Goodall
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1 Which of the following should a psychologist avoid using? A.random sample B.nonrepresentative sample C.stratified sample D.representative sample
Section 1 Methods of Research The goals of research are to: –Describe behavior –Explain its causes –Predict the circumstances under which certain behaviors may occur again –To control certain behaviors
Section 1 Methods of Research (cont.) Methods of research used to accomplish these goals: –Naturalistic observationsNaturalistic observations –Case studiesCase studies –SurveysSurveys –Longitudinal StudiesLongitudinal Studies –Cross-Sectional StudiesCross-Sectional Studies –CorrelationsCorrelations –Experiments A Correlation Study
Section 1 Methods of Research (cont.) Every experiment has: –hypothesishypothesis –variables (independent and dependent)variables –experimental groupexperimental group –control groupcontrol group Experimental Research
Section 1 Methods of Research (cont.) Ethics are the methods of conduct, or standards, for proper and responsible behavior. The APA has a list of ethical principles that psychologists must follow.
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1 What is the importance of a control group? A.It exhibits change during an experiment. B.It affects the results in the experimental group. C.It allows for a comparison to identify changes in the experimental group. D.None of the above.
Section 2-Objectives Objectives Summarize the methodological hazards of doing research. Examine experimental procedures psychologists use to avoid bias.
A.A B.B Section 2-Polling Question Do you think that expectations of behavior affect actual behavior? A.Yes B.No
Section 2 Problems and Solutions in Research A self-fulfilling prophecy is a situation in which a researcher’s expectations influence that person’s own behavior, and thereby influence the participant’s behavior.self-fulfilling prophecy
Section 2 Avoiding a Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Ways to avoid self-fulfilling prophecy: –Single-blind experimentSingle-blind experiment –Double-blind experimentDouble-blind experiment Single-Blind and Double- Blind Experiments
A.A B.B C.C Section 2 Do you agree or disagree that humans often have preconceived notions about what will happen in a situation? A.Agree B.Disagree C.Not sure
Section 2 The Milgram Experiment In the 1960s, Stanley Miligram wanted to determine whether participants would administer painful shocks to others merely because an authority figure had instructed them to do so. The result implied that ordinary individuals could easily inflict pain on others if such orders were issued by a respected authority.
Section 2 The Milgram Experiment (cont.) His experiment, although no one was actually shocked, was controversial. Today, experiments are required to submit a plan to a Human Subjects Committee.
A.A B.B C.C Section 2 Do you believe that Miligram’s decision to use volunteers as he did was ethical or unethical? A.Ethical B.Unethical C.Not sure
Section 2 The Placebo Effect The placebo effect is a change in a participant’s illness or behavior that results from a belief that the treatment will have an effect rather than from the actual treatment.placebo effect
A.A B.B C.C Section 2 Do you think that is ethical to use a placebo in an experiment? A.Yes B.No C.Not sure
A.A B.B Section 3-Polling Question In your opinion, in which way are statistics more likely to be used? A.To distort the truth B.To honestly to support a hypotheses
Section 3 Statistical Evaluation Statistics consist of the branch of mathematics concerned with summarizing and making meaningful inferences from collections of data.Statistics Kate’s Data
Section 3 Descriptive Statistics Descriptive statistics involve the listing and summarizing of data in a practical, efficient way.Descriptive statistics One of the first steps that researchers take to organize their data is to create frequency tables and graphs.
Section 3 Descriptive Statistics (cont.) A frequency distribution is a way of arranging data so that we know how often a particular score or observation occurs.frequency distribution A Frequency Distribution
Section 3 Descriptive Statistics (cont.) Types of graphs: –Histogram –Frequency polygon/frequency curve A Frequency Polygon
Section 3 Descriptive Statistics (cont.) A normal curve is a graph of frequency distribution shaped like a symmetrical, bell- shaped curve.normal curve A Normal Curve
Section 3 Descriptive Statistics (cont.) A common way of summarizing is to measure the central tendency.central tendency Distributions also differ in their variability.variability Measure of Central Tendency
Section 3 Descriptive Statistics (cont.) Two commonly used measures of variability are: –Range –Standard deviationStandard deviation Standard Deviation
Section 3 Descriptive Statistics (cont.) Standard devaiation is a better measure because it uses all of the data points. A correlation coefficient describes the direction and strength of the relationship between two sets of observations.correlation coefficient The most commonly used measure is the Pearson correlation coefficient (r).
Section 3 Descriptive Statistics (cont.) A coefficient with a plus sign (+) indicates a positive correlation. A coefficient with a minus sign (–) indicates a negative coefficient. A scatterplot is a graph of scores that demonstrates the direction of the relationship between two variables. A Scatterplot
A.A B.B C.C Section 3 In relation to class test scores, which of the following do you think is more descriptive? A.An average of 84 B.A median of 85 C.A mode of 79
Section 3 Inferential Statistics Psychologists also want to make generalizations about the population from which the participants come, so they use inferential statistics. inferential statistics Inferential statistics are numerical methods used to determine whether research data support a hypothesis or whether results were due to change.
Section 3 Inferential Statistics (cont.) Researchers must perform a variety of statistical tests, called measures of statistical significance, to determine that their results are not due to chance. For many traits in a large population, the frequency distribution follows the normal curve.
Section 3 Inferential Statistics (cont.) Many researchers say that if the probability that their results were due to chance is less than 5%, they do not think the results were due to chance. The results would then be considered statistically significant.
A.A B.B Section 3 A statistically significant result always represents an important finding. A.True B.False
Figure 1 A Correlation Study These charts display possible correlations between different variables.
Figure 2 Experimental Research Psychology is an experimental science. Psychologists follow the same general procedures when conducting experimental research.
Figure 3 Single-Blind and Double-Blind Experiments Researcher’s must take measures during experimentation to guard against seeing only what they expect to see.
Figure 4 Kate’s Data Kate’s data show the number of hours of television watched before and after the quiz, the grade on the quiz, the number of products recognized, and participants’ height in inches. * Highest grade possible is 10.
Figure 5 A Frequency Distribution A frequency distribution shows how often a particular observation occurs.
Figure 6 A Frequency Polygon This graph shows the number of hours of TV watched the night before the quiz and the night after the quiz.
Figure 7 A Normal Curve The maximum frequency lies in the center of a range of scores in a perfect normal curve. The frequency tapers off as you reach the edges of the two sides.
Figure 8 Measures of Central Tendency It is often useful to summarize a set of scores by identifying a number that represents the center, average, or most frequently occurring number of the distribution.
Figure 9 Standard Deviation Two distributions with the same mean and different standard deviations are shown.
Figure 10 A Scatterplot When there is little or no relationship between two variables, the points in the scatterplot do not seem to fall into any pattern.
Profile Jane Goodall 1934– “Every individual matters. Every individual has a role to play. Every individual makes a difference.”
Concept Trans Menu Chapter Concepts Transparencies Positive and Negative Correlations Characteristics of the Normal Curve Select a transparency to view.
Vocab1 sample: the small group of participants, out of the total number available, that a researcher studies
Vocab2 naturalistic observation: research method in which the psychologist observes the subject in a natural setting without interfering
Vocab3 case study: research method that involves an intensive investigation of one or more participants
Vocab4 survey: research method in which information is obtained by asking many individuals a fixed set of questions
Vocab5 longitudinal study: research method in which data are collected about a group of participants over a number of years to assess how certain characteristics change or remain the same during development
Vocab6 cross-sectional study: research method in which data are collected from groups of participants of different ages and compared so that conclusions can be drawn about differences due to age
Vocab7 correlation: the measure of a relationship between two variables or sets of data
Vocab8 hypothesis: an educated guess about the relationship between two variables
Vocab9 variable: any factor that is capable of change
Vocab10 experimental group: the group to which an independent variable is applied
Vocab11 control group: the group that is treated in the same way as the experimental group except that the experimental treatment (the independent variable) is not applied
Vocab12 self-fulfilling prophecy: a situation in which a researcher’s expectations influence that person’s own behavior, and thereby influence the participant’s behavior
Vocab13 single-blind experiment: an experiment in which the participants are unaware of which participants received the treatment
Vocab14 double-blind experiment: an experiment in which neither the experimenter nor the participants know which participants received which treatment
Vocab15 placebo effect: a change in a participant’s illness or behavior that results from a belief that the treatment will have an effect rather than from the actual treatment
Vocab16 statistics: the branch of mathematics concerned with summarizing and making meaningful inferences from collections of data
Vocab17 descriptive statistics: the listing and summarizing of data in a practical, efficient way
Vocab18 frequency distribution: an arrangement of data that indicates how often a particular score or observation occurs
Vocab19 normal curve: a graph of frequency distribution shaped like a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve; a graph of normally distributed data
Vocab20 central tendency: a number that describes something about the “average” score of a distribution
Vocab21 variability: a measure of difference, or spread of data
Vocab22 standard deviation: a measure of variability that describes an average distance of every score from the mean
Vocab23 correlation coefficient: describes the direction and strength of the relationship between two sets of variables
Vocab24 inferential statistics: numerical methods used to determine whether research data support a hypothesis or whether results were due to chance
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